*

Blacklip Abalone

Haliotis rubra rubra

  • Craig Mundy (Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania)
  • Ben Stobart (South Australian Research and Development Institute)
  • Corey Green (Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources, Victoria)
  • Greg Ferguson (South Australian Research and Development Institute)
  • Owen Burnell (South Australian Research and Development Institute)
  • Rowan Chick (Department of Primary Industries, New South Wales)
  • Stephen Mayfield (South Australian Research and Development Institute)

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Stock Status Overview

Stock status determination
Jurisdiction Stock Fisheries Stock status Indicators
Tasmania Tasmanian Bass Strait Zone Fishery TBSZF Sustainable Catch, CPUE 
Tasmania Tasmanian Central Western Zone Fishery TCWZF Transitional-depleting Catch, CPUE 
Tasmania Tasmanian Eastern Zone Fishery TEZF Sustainable Catch, CPUE 
Tasmania Tasmanian Northern Zone Fishery TNZF Transitional-depleting Catch, CPUE 
Tasmania Tasmanian Western Zone Fishery TWZF Transitional-depleting Catch, CPUE 
TBSZF
Tasmanian Bass Strait Zone Fishery (TAS)
TCWZF
Tasmanian Central Western Zone Fishery (TAS)
TEZF
Tasmanian Eastern Zone Fishery (TAS)
TNZF
Tasmanian Northern Zone Fishery (TAS)
TWZF
Tasmanian Western Zone Fishery (TAS)
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Stock Structure

Empirical field studies1 and molecular techniques2,3 strongly suggest Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra rubra) fisheries comprise a large number of small, ecologically independent populations. Each biological stock may extend over only a few hundred metres, with each Blacklip Abalone fishery likely consisting of an indeterminate number of small biological stocks (populations), which may number in the thousands for a single fishery management unit. Given the large number of biological stocks, it is not practical to assess each stock separately.

Here, assessment of stock status is presented at the jurisdictional level—Western Australia; and at the management unit level (for each spatial quota management area)—New South Wales Abalone Fishery, Victorian Central Zone Fishery, Victorian Eastern Zone Fishery, Victorian Western Zone Fishery, Tasmanian Bass Strait Zone Fishery, Tasmanian Central Western Zone Fishery, Tasmanian Eastern Zone Fishery, Tasmanian Northern Zone Fishery, Tasmanian Western Zone Fishery, South Australian Central Zone Fishery, South Australian Southern Zone Fishery and South Australian Western Zone Fishery.

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Stock Status

All states rely on empirical performance measures, specifically catch, catch per unit effort (CPUE; as kg of abalone harvested per hour), and commercial catch size structure. The annual catch in Blacklip Abalone fisheries is generally equivalent to the total allowable commercial catch (TACC) with negligible over-catch or under-catch of the TACC. In some jurisdictions, additional fishery-independent data (density, size structure) are available from underwater research surveys.

 

As the spatial extent of individual fishing events (dives4) or fishery-independent survey sites is approximately the same size as a functionally independent abalone population, and that habitat structure often changes on a similar spatial scale, the combination of these features make assessment of abalone stock status more complicated than most fisheries. Common values for catchability, recruitment, growth and natural mortality cannot be assumed for a management unit, and status of the many populations in a management unit should not be assumed to be trending in the same direction. Thus attempts to model a management unit as a single stock, or to use other methods to arrive at ‘global’ estimates of biomass should be approached cautiously. Catch rates are an index of local abundance only, that is, localised to each fishing event or to each survey site and local catch and catch rates do not inform status of more distant fishing grounds within the same management unit. Fishing effort in abalone fisheries is also subject to a range of influences (wave height and power, wind, currents, water clarity) creating short-term biases or variability in CPUE that are not related to resource abundance.

 

The New South Wales Abalone Fishery is managed as a single management unit with a single TACC, set by an independent Total Allowable Catch Committee. Annual assessments have relied heavily on fishery-dependent data from logbooks, including catch, catch rate (kg per hour) and mean weight, summarised at a range of spatial scales. Most recent assessments have also utilised estimates of legal size biomass density at fine spatial scales, derived from GPS data-loggers and data from logbooks.

The Victorian abalone fisheries are assessed using a weight-of-evidence approach, incorporating fishery-dependent commercial catch, effort, CPUE and length frequency data (from 1992 onwards), and fishery-independent fixed site surveys of abalone abundance and size structure. Trends in abalone abundance in two size classes are considered, using the legal minimum length (LML) established in 1992 (110 mm/120 mm Central Zone; 120 mm Eastern Zone, Western Zone)–density of abalone recruits (greater than the LML) and density of pre-recruits in a size band 40 mm below the LML. While fishery-independent survey data are available from 1992 onwards, data are only considered here from 2003–15, due to an increase in number of survey sites and other methodology changes introduced at this time, thus making it difficult to compare with data prior to 2003. The value of this fishery-independent survey is disputed by some sectors, although a recent review showed it to be broadly useful for determining relative stock status5. Commercial CPUE data and diver observations are evaluated at the scale of the management zones and at finer scales within each zone. Commercial CPUE data are used in both raw and standardised form6. Importantly, interpretation of these data is conducted within the context of historical changes in the management, fishing methods and other non-fishing impacts on the populations with each zone.

 

The Tasmanian abalone fishery has been quota managed with an annual TACC since 1985, and up to 1999 there was a single Tasmanian TACC that did not differentiate between species or area. In response to increased regional fishing pressure through the late-1990s, separate TACCs for Greenlip Abalone and Blacklip Abalone were implemented in 2000, and the Blacklip Abalone fishery was divided into two zones (Eastern Blacklip, Western Blacklip). Also in 2000, finer-scale reporting of fishing within sub-blocks was introduced. Further spatial partitioning of the Tasmanian Blacklip Abalone fishery occurred in 2001, with the northern areas of the Eastern and Western Zone moving into a Northern Blacklip Zone. In 2003, the Northern Zone was split into two zones with different size limits (Northern Blacklip and Bass Strait Blacklip). In 2009, the Western Blacklip Zone was split into Western Blacklip and Central West Blacklip zones, and the boundary between the Western and Central West Blacklip zones was moved northwards in 2013.

Around 65 per cent of the total Tasmanian wild abalone harvest is exported live to Asia, with the remaining fraction processed in canned or frozen form. The fishery lands abalone live, and all catch rates are in whole live weight.

An empirical harvest strategy (HS) was developed for the Tasmanian abalone fisheries in 2014–157,8 and tested by Management Strategy Evaluation (MSE)9,10. The HS was trialled in the Tasmanian abalone fishery assessment for the first time in 2015, jointly with the previous ad hoc approach4. The HS assesses the fishery performance against target reference points for three performance measures (PM) derived from standardised CPUE (SCPUE) data: current CPUE relative to an agreed target (55th percentile of the annual standardised mean CPUE within the reference period); the 4 year gradient of CPUE (target gradient is zero); and the per cent change in SCPUE in the past year (target change is zero). The reference period for the 2015 assessment spans fishery data between 1992 and 2015. A scoring function is applied to the three PMs resulting in a score between zero and 10, where five is the target PM value and zero and 10 are the zone-wide lowest and highest values for that PM within the reference period. Weightings are applied to the three PMs 05:0.25:02.5 to provide a combined final score used in the control rule. The HS is applied individually to each statistical reporting block, and a zone score is obtained from the mean block score weighted by block catch.

The zone target CPUE PM score is used as a proxy for biomass and the zone gradient CPUE PM score is used as a proxy for fishing mortality. A target CPUE score of one is the limit reference point (LRP) defining the boundary between recruitment overfished and transitional–depleting for all Tasmanian management units. This LRP is typically five per cent above the lowest SCPUE observed within the zone during the reference period. A negative zone gradient score gives evidence that fishing mortality is increasing and the magnitude of the gradient provides some information on the magnitude of fishing mortality. In order to emulate a normal phase plot, five is subtracted from the 4 year gradient PM score to provide a range of negative five–positive five, where the target reference point is zero, and defines the boundary between sustainable and transitional–depleting classifications, but also between transitional–recovering and recruitment overfished. The combination of a negative CPUE gradient and near-record low CPUE score represents a cautious proxy for the true recruitment overfished reference point. No reporting blocks have collapsed within the reference period, providing a degree of certainty that the LRP will prevent stock collapse, which is supported by MSE testing of the HS.

The Tasmanian Abalone Fishery Management Plan policy document requires size limits be established that allow two breeding seasons post-reproductive maturity. Research programs11 to obtain empirical data representing the geographic variability in growth rates and size at reproductive maturity have been underway since 1985, resulting in a range of LML regulations within the Tasmanian Blacklip Abalone fisheries ranging from 110–145 mm.

 

In South Australia, the harvest strategy in the Management Plan for the commercial abalone fishery12 produces a catch weighted determination of stock status for the fishing zone. However, the harvest strategy does not identify performance indicators or reference points for classifying the fishery under the Status of Australian Fish Stocks framework. The reference points described in the harvest strategy were developed as a scoring mechanism for the performance indicators, not as a stock classification tool. While there is some variability among management units, the harvest strategy was developed at a time when the fishery was considered to be stable and was partly designed to maintain that stability. Reference points are used to score performance indicators, with negative scores for low current values and positive scores for high current values, when assessed against a fixed 20-year reference period (1990–2009). The intent was to prevent the fishery declining to abundance levels in the 1990s, that preceded the large increase in abundance (presumably through strong recruitment) in the 2000s13,14, whilst simultaneously allowing increased abundance to translate to elevated TACCs. The harvest strategy appears to result in more optimistic assessments of stock status than those from weight-of-evidence methods applied elsewhere13,14. Concerns with the harvest strategy have resulted in a review that is currently underway. Consequently, in this assessment, nominal commercial catch rates (CPUE based on: meat weight in the Central and Western Zone management units; and shell [whole] weight in the Southern Zone management unit) are used as the primary index of relative Blacklip Abalone abundance. CPUE can provide a more optimistic index of relative abundance than measures from fishery-independent surveys, because catch rates in dive fisheries have been shown to be hyperstable13–18. Decreases in CPUE in abalone fisheries are considered to be a reliable indicator of declines in abalone abundance, but nominal CPUE can underestimate the actual magnitude of the reduction in harvestable biomass13–18.

Tasmanian Bass Strait Zone Fishery

Two different LMLs are in place (110 mm and 114 mm) in this zone, reflecting the variation in growth rates within this zone. Since the creation of this zone in 2003, catch and SCPUE have been relatively stable. The Bass Strait Zone was closed in 2007, due to concerns around the possible risk of transferring AVG from Victoria to Tasmania, and re-opened in 2008. In 2015, the TACC for the Bass Strait Zone remains at 70 t, and the zone-wide catch weighted block mean SCPUEcw was 87 kg per hour, compared with 79.1 kg per hour when the zone was established in 20034. The zone-wide proxy for biomass is 6.5 and well above the LRP and the zone-wide proxy for fishing mortality is 0.4 and just above the TRP for sustainability4.

The above evidence indicates that stocks in the Tasmanian Bass Strait Zone are unlikely to be recruitment overfished and that the current level of fishing pressure is unlikely to cause these stocks to become recruitment overfished.

On the basis of the evidence provided above, the Tasmanian Bass Strait Zone Fishery management unit is classified as a sustainable stock.

Tasmanian Central Western Zone Fishery

The Tasmanian Central Western Zone Fishery management unit has a LML of 132 mm. This part of the west coast was underexploited in the early- to mid-2000s4 in preference to southern areas, where higher beach prices were achievable for the live market and spatial management measures were used to shift effort into this region in 2009. SCPUE has oscillated over the past 15 years, but has declined over the past 5 years, suggesting the biomass has been reduced. During 2012, 127 t was harvested from this area and associated with the zone boundary change, the TACC in this management unit was reduced by 20 per cent in 2013 to 105.1 t28, by 25 per cent in 2014 to 73.5 t, and a further 28 per cent in 2015 to 52.5 t. The intention is to continue reducing the TACC until there is unambiguous evidence of stock rebuilding4. The mean SCPUE in 2015 was 62.8 kg per hour compared with an SCPUE of 136.5 kg per hour when this zone was created in 2009. The rate of decline in SCPUE since 2012 has been sharp despite several TACC reductions. The zone-wide proxy for biomass is 1.1, marginally above the LRP, while the proxy for fishing mortality is -3.7, which is below the TRP for sustainability4.

The above evidence indicates that the stocks in the Central Western Zone are not likely to be recruitment overfished, but that the current level of fishing pressure is likely to cause the stocks to become recruitment overfished.

On the basis of the evidence provided above, the Tasmanian Central Western Zone Fishery management unit is classified as a transitional–depleting stock.

Tasmanian Eastern Zone Fishery

The majority of the Tasmanian Eastern Zone Fishery management unit has a LML of 138 mm, while the LML for a small area around Freycinet is set at 145 mm as part of a rebuilding program4. Relative stock biomass in this fishery (estimated using SCPUE as a proxy) has oscillated substantially since 1992, with evidence of an approximate 8-year cycle4. Based on declining mean SCPUEcw between 2000 (76 kg per hour) and 2003 (53.8 kg per hour), the TACC was reduced from 1190–857 t in 2002 and to 770 t in 200429. Subsequent increases in SCPUE and increasing median length of the commercial catch led to increases in the TACC by five per cent in 2008, 2009 and 201030, resulting in a TACC of 896 t by 2010. Between 2007 and 2009, the mean SCPUEcw was stable at around 90 kg per hour, but reports from divers suggested the resource was declining in late-2009. Rapid declines in SCPUE in late-2010 resulted in a reduced TACC of 721 t for 2011. Mortality (per cent unknown) of abalone in the wild across a large proportion of the Eastern Zone was observed in March 2010, coincident with a marine heat wave. Further rapid decline in 2011 resulted in an additional TACC reduction to 549.5 t for 2012. In 2013, minor reductions in the TACC to 528.5 t were made to address local concerns in one sub-region and held for 2014 and 20154. In 2015, the mean SCPUEcw was 59 kg per hour and has been stable at this level for 4 years. There was evidence of stock rebuilding in several key areas of the Tasmanian Eastern Zone in 2014 and 2015, primarily in the south, with some areas in the north of the zone declining. There remains an intent to further reduce the TACC to trigger faster rebuilding of biomass and to ensure the fishery remains resilient to further environmental change. Overall, the zone-wide proxy for biomass is 3.6 and above the LRP of 1 and the zone-wide proxy for fishing mortality is 0.1 and above the TRP for sustainability4.

The above evidence indicates that stocks in the Tasmanian Eastern Zone are unlikely to be recruitment overfished and that the current level of fishing mortality is unlikely to cause these stocks to become recruitment overfished.

On the basis of the evidence provided above, the Tasmanian Eastern Zone Fishery management unit is classified as a sustainable stock.

Tasmanian Northern Zone Fishery

The geographic variability in dynamics within the Tasmanian Northern Zone are reflected by three different LMLs (120 mm, 127 mm and 132 mm)4. Regional catch and catch rates have varied between 2000 and 2015 as a function of changing market preference and adaptive management (that is, effort redistribution and change in LML). The majority of abalone landed from this zone are traditionally unsuited to the live market, and are processed for canned or frozen markets. In 2008, the first of two industry-driven experimental fisheries to improve fish quality commenced in Block 5 with a reduction in LML from 132–127 mm and a 50 t increase in catch, and a second industry-driven experimental fishery commenced in Block 49 in 2011, pushing the TACC for the Northern Zone to a peak of 402.5 t. This initiative was not successful31, and has had longer-term negative impacts on biomass. SCPUE varies across different geographic regions within the Northern Zone, but SCPUE for the zone has fallen in all the key fishing grounds targeted in the industry program over the past 5 years despite TACC reductions in 2012, 2013 and 201428, and again in 20154. The mean SCPUEcw in 2007 prior to the industry experiments was 93.1 kg per hour at a TACC of 280 t, compared with a mean SCPUEcw of 62.4 kg per hour in 2015 at a TACC of 224 t4. The rate of decline in SCPUE since 2012 has been sharp despite consecutive TACC reductions. The zone-wide proxy for biomass is 2.5, marginally above the LRP, while the proxy for fishing mortality is -2.5, which is below the TRP for sustainability4.

The above evidence indicates that the current level of fishing pressure is likely to cause this stock to become recruitment overfished.

On the basis of the evidence provided above, the Tasmanian Northern Zone Fishery management unit is classified as a transitional–depleting stock.

Tasmanian Western Zone Fishery

The Tasmanian Western Zone Fishery management unit has a LML of 140 mm. In 1993–99, the majority of the Western Zone was under-fished (ranging from 500–750 t) in preference to the Eastern Zone where a higher beach price could be achieved, leading to substantial accumulation of biomass and very high catch rates (1993 mean SCPUEcw 104.5 kg per hour; 1999 mean SCPUEcw 163.0 kg per hour). With the introduction of zones in 2000–01 to manage the distribution of effort, the Western Zone TACC was elevated to 1260 t4, and remained at this level through to 2008, with mean SCPUEcw declining to below 130 kg per hour. Widespread selective fishing, considered to be damaging to the resource at this time, along with long-term declines in SCPUE led to the zonal restructure described above and implementation of spatial catch caps set annually for four broad geographic regions within this zone, to prevent excess catch being harvested due to economic pressures. The TACC in this management unit was reduced in 2009 to 924 t. In 2013, Blocks 7 and 8 where moved from the Central Western Zone, back into the Western Zone and the TACC increased to 1001 t associated with the increased fishing area, but effectively retaining the same level of catch as in 201217. In 2013, mean SCPUEcw declined to 111.7 kg per hour triggering a TACC reduction to 840 t in 2014, and held for 2015, with the TACC to be reviewed late in 2016 28. The zone-wide proxy for biomass is 2.5, marginally above the LRP, while the proxy for fishing mortality is -2.1, which is below the TRP for sustainability4.

The above evidence indicates that the current level of fishing pressure is likely to cause this stock to become recruitment overfished.

On the basis of the evidence provided above, the Tasmanian Western Zone Fishery management unit is classified as a transitional–depleting stock.

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Biology

Blacklip Abalone biology

Biology
Species Longevity / Maximum Size Maturity (50 per cent)
Blacklip Abalone 20–50 years; 150–220 mm SL  ~ 5 years; 80–130 mm SL 
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Distributions

Distribution of reported commercial catch of Blacklip Abalone

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Tables

Fishing methods
Tasmania
Commercial
Diving
Indigenous
Diving
Recreational
Diving
Management methods
Method Tasmania
Commercial
Limited entry
Size limit
Spatial closures
Total allowable catch
Indigenous
Bag limits
Size limit
Recreational
Bag limits
Size limit
Active vessels
Tasmania
55 in TBSZF, 51 in TCWZF, 97 in TEZF, 62 in TNZF, 91 in TWZF
TBSZF
Tasmanian Bass Strait Zone Fishery (TAS)
TCWZF
Tasmanian Central Western Zone Fishery (TAS)
TEZF
Tasmanian Eastern Zone Fishery (TAS)
TNZF
Tasmanian Northern Zone Fishery (TAS)
TWZF
Tasmanian Western Zone Fishery (TAS)
Catch
Tasmania
Commercial 69.77t in TBSZF, 51.88t in TCWZF, 522.02t in TEZF, 225.59t in TNZF, 830.99t in TWZF
Indigenous Unknown
Recreational 36t
TBSZF
Tasmanian Bass Strait Zone Fishery (TAS)
TCWZF
Tasmanian Central Western Zone Fishery (TAS)
TEZF
Tasmanian Eastern Zone Fishery (TAS)
TNZF
Tasmanian Northern Zone Fishery (TAS)
TWZF
Tasmanian Western Zone Fishery (TAS)

a Victoria – Indigenous (management methods) In Victoria, managing fishing activities by Indigenous people is grouped with the recreational fishing sector. Recognised Traditional Owners (groups that hold native title or have agreements under the Traditional Owner Settlement Act 2010 [Vic]) can apply for permits under the Fisheries Act 1995 (Vic) that authorise customary fishing (for example, different catch and size limits or equipment). The Indigenous category in Table 3 has been interpreted to mean customary fishing being undertaken by Recognised Traditional Owners.
b New South Wales – Indigenous (management methods) Aboriginal Cultural Fishing Interim Access Arrangement - allows an Indigenous fisher in New South Wales to take in excess of a recreational bag limit in certain circumstances, for example, if they are doing so to provide fish to other community members who cannot harvest themselves.
c New South Wales – Indigenous Aboriginal cultural fishing authority - the authority that Indigenous persons can apply to take catches outside the recreational limits under the Fisheries Management Act 1994 (NSW), Section 37 (1)(c1), Aboriginal cultural fishing authority.

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Catch Chart

Commercial catch of Blacklip Abalone

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Effects of fishing on the marine environment

  • Blacklip Abalone are hand-selected by divers operating from vessels that seldom anchor, hence the fishery has negligible direct physical impact on the environment. There is also substantial evidence that the ecosystem effects of removing abalone are minimal34–36.
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Environmental effects on Blacklip Abalone

  • AVG established in the wild fishery following initial infection in two land-based abalone aquaculture farms and two offshore experimental farms adjacent to the wild fishery in 200524. AVG is highly pathogenic, resulting in estimated mortalities of between 60 and 95 per cent in infected wild populations.
  • South and westward strengthening of the relatively oligotrophic East Australian Current37 into the inshore waters in eastern Victoria and Tasmania is thought to have triggered changes in nearshore community structure over the past two decades38. This is primarily through range expansion of species such as the Long Spined Sea Urchin (Centrostephanus rodgersii) from New South Wales to Tasmania and Victoria, and the significant reduction in Giant Kelp (Macrocystis porifera) biomass39. This has resulted in localised depletions of abalone populations and a reduction in the habitat available for abalone40.
  • Above average warm water events were inferred to have resulted in minor mortalities of abalone in Tasmania in February 2010 (pers. comm., Tasmanian Abalone Divers), although the spatial extent and magnitude of the mortality was not quantified. These events are expected to increase under most climate change scenarios.
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References

  1. 1 Prince JD, Sellers TL, Ford WB, Talbot SR. 1987, Experimental-Evidence for Limited Dispersal of Haliotid Larvae (Genus Haliotis, Mollusca, Gastropoda). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 1987; 106: 243–263. .
  2. 2 Miller KJ, Maynard BT, Mundy CN. 2009, Genetic diversity and gene flow in collapsed and healthy abalone fisheries. Molecular Ecology 2009; 18: 200–211. .
  3. 3 Temby N, Miller K, Mundy C. 2007, Evidence of genetic subdivision among populations of blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra Leach) in Tasmania. Marine and Freshwater Research 2007; 58: 733–742. .
  4. 4 Mundy C, Jones HJ. 2016, Tasmanian Abalone Fishery Assessment 2015. Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies Report. University of Tasmania, Hobart.
  5. 5 Hart. 2016, Review of fixed site surveys used by the Victorian abalone science program. Western Australian Department of Fisheries.
  6. 6 Gorfine H, Taylor B, Smith DC. 2002, Abalone – 2001, Fisheries Victoria Assessment Report No 43. Marine and Freshwater Resources Institute, Queenscliff.
  7. 7 Buxton CD, Cartright I, Dichmont C, Mayfield S, Plaganyi EE. 2015, Review of the Harvest Strategy and MCDA process for the Tasmanian Abalone Fishery. Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies.
  8. 8 Mundy C, Jones HJ. 2016, Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis based harvest strategy for the Tasmanian abalone fishery. Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, Hobart.
  9. 9 Haddon M, Mundy C. 2016, Testing abalone empirical harvest strategies, for setting TACs and associated LMLs, that include the use of novel spatially explicit performance measures. CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Hobart.
  10. 10 Haddon M, Mayfield S, Helidoniotis F, Chick R, Mundy C. 2014, Identification and Evaluation of Performance Indicators for Abalone Fisheries. FRDC Final Report 2007/020. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Hobart
  11. 11 Jones HJ, Pyke S, Mundy C. 2016, Review of Size at Maturity and Legal Minimum Length in Tasmanian Blacklip Abalone Fisheries. Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies Report. University of Tasmania, Hobart.
  12. 12 PIRSA. 2012, Management Plan for the South Australian commercial abalone fishery. 2012. .
  13. 13 Burnell O, Mayfield S, Ferguson G, Carroll J. 2016, Central Zone Abalone (Haliotis laevigata & H. rubra) Fishery. Fishery Assessment Report for PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture. 2016.
  14. 14 Stobart B, Mayfield S. 2016, Status of the Western Zone Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra) fishery in 2015. Report for PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture. 2016. .
  15. 15 Dowling NA, Hall SJ, McGarvey R. 2004, Assessing population sustainability and response to fishing in terms of aggregation structure for greenlip abalone (Haliotis laevigata) fishery management. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 2004; 61: 247–259.
  16. 16 Stobart B, Mayfield S. 2016, Assessment of the Western Zone greenlip abalone (Haliotis laevigata) Fishery in 2015. Fishery Stock Assessment Report to PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture. 2016. .
  17. 17 Tarbath D, Mundy C, Gardner C. 2014, Tasmanian Abalone Fishery Assessment 2013. Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies .
  18. 18 Shephard S, Rodda KR. 2001, Sustainability demands vigilance: Evidence for serial decline of the greenlip abalone fishery and a review of management. 2001; 20: 829–841. .
  19. 19 Anon. 2015, Total Allowable Catch Committee Report and Determination for 2016 – Abalone Fishery 2015. New South Wales Government.
  20. 20 Liggins G, Upston J. 2010, Investigating and managing the Perkinsus-related mortality of Blacklip Abalone in NSW. 2010. .
  21. 21 DEDJTR. 2016, Victorian Abalone Stock Assessment – Central Zone. Fisheries Victoria.
  22. 22 Gorfine H, Bell J, Mills K, Lewis Z. 2012, Removing sea urchins (Centrostephanus rodgersii) to recover abalone (Haliotis rubra) habitat. Department of Primary Industries, Queenscliff, Victoria, Australia.
  23. 23 DEDJTR. 2016, Victorian Abalone Stock Assessment – Eastern Zone. Fisheries Victoria.
  24. 24 Mayfield S, McGarvey R, Gorfine HK, Peeters H, Burch P, Sharma S. 2011, Survey estimates of fishable biomass following a mass mortality in an Australian molluscan fishery. Journal of Fish Diseases 2011; 34: 287–302. .
  25. 25 Helidoniotis F, Haddon M. 2014, Modelling the potential for recovery of Western Victorian abalone stocks: The Crags. Interim Report to 2012/225. CSIRO, Hobart.
  26. 26 Gorfine H, Day R, Bardos D, Taylor B, Prince J, Sainsbury K et al. 2008, Rapid response to abalone virus depletion in western Victoria: information acquisition and reefcode assessment, final report to the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, project 2007-066. The University of Melbourne .
  27. 27 WADA. 2016, Assessment of abalone stocks in Western Zone, Victoria: Submission to the TAC setting process for 2017 November 2016. WADA.
  28. 28 Tarbath D, Mundy C. 2015, Tasmanian Abalone Fishery Assessment 2014. Institute for Marine and Antarctic Science, University of Tasmania .
  29. 29 Tarbath D, Mundy C. 2004, Tasmanian Abalone Fishery 2003. Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisherieis Institute .
  30. 30 Tarbath D, Gardner C. 2011, Tasmanian Abalone Fishery Assessment 2010. Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute .
  31. 31 Jones C H. J. Tarbath D. Gardner. 2014, Could harvest from abalone stocks be increased through better management of the size limit/quota interaction? Australian Seafood Cooperative Research Centre, Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania .
  32. 32 Ferguson G, Mayfield S. 2016, Status of the Southern Zone blacklip (Haliotis rubra) and greenlip (H. laevigata) abalone fisheries in 2014/15. Report for PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture. 2016.
  33. 33 Lyle JM, Tracey SR. 2016, Tasmanian Recreational Rock Lobster and Abalone Fisheries: 2014-2015 Fishing Season. 2016. .
  34. 34 Jenkins GP. 2004, The ecosystem effects of abalone fishing: a review. Marine and Freshwater Research 2004; 55: 545–552.
  35. 35 Valentine JP, Tarbath DB, Frusher SD, Mundy CN, Buxton CD. 2010, Limited evidence for ecosystem-level change on reefs exposed to Haliotis rubra (“blacklip abalone”) exploitation. Austral Ecology 2010; 35: 806–817. .
  36. 36 Hamer PA, Jenkins G, Womersley BA, Mills KA. 2010, Understanding the ecological role of abalone in the reef ecosystem of Victoria. Final report to Fisheries Research and Development Corporation. Project No. 2006/040. 2010. .
  37. 37 Ridgway KR. 2007, Long-term trend and decadal variability of the southward penetration of the East Australian Current. Geophysical Research Letters 2007; 34. .
  38. 38 Johnson CR, Banks SC, Barrett NS, Cazassus F, Dunstan PK, Edgar GJ et al. 2011, Climate change cascades: Shifts in oceanography, species’ ranges and subtidal marine community dynamics in eastern Tasmania. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 2011; 400: 17–32. .
  39. 39 Ling SD, C.R. J, K. R, Hobday A, Haddon M. 2009, Climate-driven range extension of a sea urchin: inferring future trends by analysis of recent population dynamics. Global Change Biology 2009; 15: 719–731. .
  40. 40 Strain EMA, Johnson CR. 2009, Competition between an invasive urchin and commercially fished abalone: effect on body condition, reproduction and survivorship. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 2009; 377: 169–182.

Archived reports

Click the links below to view reports from other years for this fish.