TIGER PRAWNS (2018)
Penaeus esculentus, Penaeus semisulcatus
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Tiger Prawn stocks in the COMM, NT, WA and QLD are sustainable. There is one negligible stock in NSW and one undefined stock in the COMM (Torres Strait). The assessment includes both Brown Tiger and Grooved Tiger Prawns.
Stock Status Overview
|Queensland||East Coast Otter Trawl Fishery (Brown and Grooved Tiger Prawn)||ECOTF||Sustainable||Biomass estimate, catch rate, catch, effort|
- East Coast Otter Trawl Fishery (QLD)
The standard name ‘Tiger Prawn’ refers to the species Penaeus esculentus, P. semisulcatus and P. japonicus. Only P. esculentus (Brown Tiger Prawn) and P. semisulcatus (Grooved Tiger Prawn) are considered in this chapter; P. japonicus is not caught commercially in Australian waters.
Brown Tiger Prawns are endemic to tropical and subtropical waters of Australia, while Grooved Tiger Prawns have a wider Indo–West Pacific distribution. There is some genetic evidence of separation of Brown Tiger Prawn stocks from the east and west coasts of Australia [Ward et al. 2006].
Here, assessment of stock status is presented at the management unit level—Northern Prawn Fishery (Brown Tiger Prawn) , Northern Prawn Fishery (Grooved Tiger Prawn), Torres Strait Prawn Fishery (Brown Tiger Prawn) (Commonwealth); Shark Bay Prawn Managed Fishery (Brown Tiger Prawn), Exmouth Gulf Prawn Managed Fishery (Brown Tiger Prawn) (Western Australia), North Coast Prawn Managed Fisheries (Brown Tiger Prawn) (Western Australia; East Coast Otter Trawl Fishery (Brown and Grooved Tiger Prawn) (Queensland); and at the jurisdictional level—New South Wales (Brown Tiger Prawn).
East Coast Otter Trawl Fishery (Brown and Grooved Tiger Prawn)
The most recent stock assessment, using a weekly delay-difference analysis of catch and effort data up to 2013, estimated Tiger Prawn MSY in north and south Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) regions and the Brown Tiger Prawn MSY in Moreton Bay to be 1 107 t, 728 t and 197 t, respectively [Wang et al. 2015]. Eighty per cent of the 2017 total Tiger Prawn landings in Queensland were taken from the north and south GBRMP regions. Catches from these regions are estimated have been above MSY levels prior to 2000, reducing spawning stock biomass to 80–90 per cent of estimated BMSY, [Wang et al. 2015], although still well above a 0.2BMSY limit.
Average catches over 2000–12 declined by 69 per cent to well below MSY levels. Catches have increased since, but have remained below MSY in the south GBRMP region since 2000; in the north GBRMP region since 2007; and in Moreton Bay over 2007–16. The Moreton Bay catch increased in 2017 to exceed MSY by 23 per cent [QDAF 2018]. Nonetheless, since 2000, nominal annual catch rates have generally increased in high abundance grids in north and south GBRMP regions as well as in Moreton Bay [QDAF 2018], indicating increasing biomass. The above evidence indicates that the biomass of this stock is unlikely to be depleted and that recruitment is unlikely to be impaired.
Prior to 2000, Tiger Prawn fishing effort levels in Queensland were at an historic high, averaging above 40 000 days per year [QDAF 2018]. From 2000–07 a 35 per cent decline in Tiger Prawn fishing effort occurred as a result of structural adjustment of the Queensland East Coast Trawl fleet, following expansion of GBRMP no-fishing zones; as well as due to adverse weather and economic conditions [Larcombe et al. 2016]. Since 2007, total Tiger Prawn effort has been consistently below the 2000–06 annual average of 29 826 days. Average annual fishing effort on the stock has increased by 8 per cent since 2009, but effort levels are still well below those required to achieve MSY (EMSY) in the north and south GBRMP region [QDAF 2018]. From 2009–15, Tiger Prawn effort in Moreton Bay was at about EMSY. In 2016–17 effort increased slightly above EMSY, but remained well below 5 710 days–the 95 per cent upper confidence limit for the EMSY [QDAF 2018].
The GBRMP ecological risk assessment found that overfishing risk was low for Brown Tiger Prawn, but was intermediate for Grooved Tiger Prawn at 2009 Tiger Prawn effort levels [Pears et al. 2012]. The Southern East Coast Trawl Fishery ecological risk assessment found that the overfishing risk for Brown Tiger Prawn south of the GBRMP was low at 2009 effort levels [Jacobsen et al. 2018]. This level of fishing pressure is unlikely to cause the stocks within the management unit to become recruitment impaired.
On the basis of the evidence provided above, the East Coast Otter Trawl Fishery (Queensland) Brown and Grooved Tiger Prawn management unit is classified as a sustainable stock.
Brown and Grooved Tiger Prawn biology [Kangas et al. 2015 a,b, Somers 1987, Yearsley et al. 1999]
|Species||Longevity / Maximum Size||Maturity (50 per cent)|
|TIGER PRAWNS||1–2 years, 55 mm CL||East Coast: ~6 month, 32–39 mm CL West coast: ~6 months, 27–35 mm CL Northern Australia: ~6 months, 32–39 mm CL|
|Commercial||1.62Kt in ECOTF|
- East Coast Otter Trawl Fishery (QLD)
Commonwealth – Recreational The Australian Government does not manage recreational fishing in Commonwealth waters. Recreational fishing in Commonwealth waters is managed by the state or territory immediately adjacent to those waters, under its management regulations.
Commonwealth – Indigenous The Australian Government does not manage non-commercial Indigenous fishing in Commonwealth waters, with the exception of the Torres Strait. In general, non-commercial Indigenous fishing in Commonwealth waters is managed by the state or territory immediately adjacent to those waters. In the Torres Strait, both commercial and non-commercial Indigenous fishing is managed by the Torres Strait Protected Zone Joint Authority (PZJA) through the Australian Fisheries Management Authority (Commonwealth); the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (Queensland); and the Torres Strait Regional Authority. The PZJA also manages non-Indigenous commercial fishing in the Torres Strait.
Queensland – Indigenous In Queensland, under the Fisheries Act 1994 (Qld), Indigenous fishers are able to use prescribed traditional and non-commercial fishing apparatus in waters open to fishing. Size and possession limits, and seasonal closures do not apply to Indigenous fishers. Further exemptions to fishery regulations can be obtained through permits.
- Buckworth, RC, Hutton, T, Deng, R, Upston, J 2016, Status of the Northern Prawn Fishery Tiger Prawn fishery at the end of 2015 with TAE estimation for 2016, Australian Fisheries Management Authority, Canberra, 2016.
- Caputi, N 1993, Aspects of spawner-recruit relationships, with particular reference to crustacean stocks: a review, Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 44: 589–607.
- Caputi, N, de Lestang, S,Hart, A, Kangas, M, Johnston, D and Penn, J 2014b, Catch Predictions in Stock Assessment and Management of Invertebrate Fisheries Using Pre-Recruit Abundance—Case Studies from Western Australia, Reviews in Fisheries Science and Aquaculture, 22:1, 36-54.
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- Caputi, N, Kangas, M, Hetzel, Y, Denham, A, Pearce, A and Chandrapavan, A 2016, Management adaptation of invertebrate fisheries to an extreme marine heat wave event at a global warming hotspot. Ecology and Evolution. doi: 10.1002/ece3.2137
- Caputi, N, Penn, JW, Joll, LM and Chubb, CF 1998, Stock–recruitment–environment relationships for invertebrate species of Western Australia, in GS Jamieson and A Campbell (eds), Proceedings of the North Pacific Symposium on Invertebrate Stock Assessment and Management, Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 125: 247–255.
- Department of Fisheries 2014, Shark Bay Prawn Managed Fishery Harvest Strategy 2014–2019, Fisheries Management Paper No. 267, Department of Fisheries, Western Australia.
- Department of Fisheries 2015, Harvest Strategy Policy and Operational Guidelines for the Aquatic Resources of Western Australia, Fisheries Management Paper No. 271, Department of Fisheries, Western Australia.
- Department of Fisheries 2018, Exmouth Gulf Prawn Managed Fishery Harvest Strategy 2014 – 2019 Version 1.1. Fisheries Management Paper No. 265. Department of Fisheries, Western Australia.
- Gaughan D, Santoro K (eds.) 2018, State of the fisheries and aquatic resources report 2016/17, Western Australian Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Perth.
- Jacobsen, I, Zeller, B, Dunning, M, Garland, A, Courtney T, & Jebreen, E, An Ecological Risk Assessment of the Southern Queensland East Coast Otter Trawl Fishery and River and Inshore Beam Trawl Fishery, Fisheries Queensland, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Brisbane.
- Kangas, MI, Sporer, EC, Hesp, SA, Travaille, KL, Brand-Gardner, SJ, Cavalli, P and Harry, AV 2015b, Shark Bay Prawn Managed Fishery, Western Australian Marine Stewardship Council Report Series 2: 294 pp.
- Kangas, MI, Sporer, EC, Hesp, SA, Travaille, KL, Moore, N, Cavalli, P and Fisher, EA 2015a, Exmouth Gulf Prawn Managed Fishery, Western Australian Marine Stewardship Council Report Series 1: 273 pp.
- Larcombe, J, Marton, N and Curtotti, R, 2018, Northern Prawn Fishery, in H Patterson, J Larcombe, S Nicol and R Curtotti (eds), Fishery status reports 2018, Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences, Canberra.
- Larcombe, J, Zeller, B, Kangas, M and Taylor, M, 2016, Tiger Prawns, Penaeus esculentus, Penaeus semiculcatus, in Carolyn Stewardson, James Andrews, Crispian Ashby, Malcolm Haddon, Klaas Hartmann, Patrick Hone, Peter Horvat, Stephen Mayfield, Anthony Roelofs, Keith Sainsbury, Thor Saunders, John Stewart, Ilona Stobutzki and Brent Wise (eds) 2016, Status of Australian fish stocks reports 2016, Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra.
- O’Neill, MF and Turnbull, CT 2006, Stock assessment of the Torres Strait Tiger Prawn Fishery (Penaeus esculentus), Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Brisbane.
- Pears, RJ, Morison, AK, Jebreen, EJ, Dunning, MC, Pitcher, CR, Courtney, AJ, Houlden, B and Jacobsen, IP 2012, Ecological risk assessment of the East Coast Otter Trawl Fishery in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park: technical report, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville.
- Penn, JW, Caputi, N and Hall, NG 1995, Stock–recruitment relationships for the tiger prawn (Penaeus esculentus) stocks in Western Australia, ICES Marine Science Symposium, 199: 320–333.
- Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries 2018, Queensland Stock Status Assessment Workshop Proceedings 2018. Species Summaries. 19-20 June 2018, Brisbane.
- Somers, IE 1987, Sediment type as a factor in the distribution of commercial prawn species in the Western Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia, Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 38: 133–149.
- Taylor, S, Turnbull, C, Marrington, J and George, M (eds) 2007, Torres Strait prawn handbook 2007, Australian Fisheries Management Authority, Canberra.
- Turnbull, C and Cocking, L 2018, Torres Strait Prawn Fishery Data Summary 2017, Australian Fisheries Management Authority. Canberra, Australia.
- Wang, N, 2015, Application of a weekly delay-difference model to commercial catch and effort data in multi-species fisheries, PhD Thesis, University of Queensland and Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Brisbane.
- Ward, R, Ovenden, J, Meadows, J, Grewe, P and Lehnert, S 2006, Population genetic structure of the brown tiger prawn, Penaeus esculentus, in tropical northern Australia, Marine Biology, 148(3): 599–607.
- Wise, BS, St. John, J and Lenanton, R 2007, Spatial scales of exploitation among populations of demersal scalefish: Implications for management. Part 1: Stock status of the key indicator species for the demersal scalefish fishery in the West Coast Bioregion. Report to the FRDC on Project No. 2003/052. Fisheries Research Report No 163. Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, 130 pp.
- Yearsley, GK, Last, PR and Ward, RD 1999, Australian seafood handbook: domestic species, CSIRO Marine Research, Hobart.