CORAL TROUTS (2018)
Plectropomus spp. & Variola spp.
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Stocks of Coral Trout are sustainable in Commonwealth waters and in the NT, WA and QLD’s Coral Reef Fin Fishery. They are undefined in QLD’s Gulf of Carpentaria. This is a combined assessment for five coral trout and two coronation trout species. The main commercial catch comes from QLD.
Stock Status Overview
|Northern Territory||Northern Territory||CLF, DF, TRF, ACL||Sustainable||Catch, SAFE assessment|
- Aboriginal Coastal License (NT)
- Coastal Line Fishery (NT)
- Demersal Fishery (NT)
- Timor Reef Fishery (NT)
The Coral Trout species complex, part of the family Epinephelidae, is found throughout Australia and is comprised of: Common Coral Trout (Plectropomus leopardus), Barcheek Coral Trout (P. maculatus), Bluespotted Coral Trout (P. laevis), Passionfruit Coral Trout (P. areolatus), Highfin Coral Trout (P. oligocanthus), Yellow-edge Coronation Trout (Variola louti) and White-edge Coronation Trout (V. albimarginata), with the Passionfruit Coral Trout not being found in the Northern Territory. The biological stock structures of these species are species-specific and spatially complex [Bergenius et al. 2005, Bergenius et al. 2006, van Herwerden et al. 2006, van Herwerden et al. 2009], and remain uncertain for some species.
Here, assessment of stock status for this multispecies group is presented at the management unit level—Torres Strait Finfish Fishery (Commonwealth); Coral Reef Fin Fish Fishery and Gulf of Carpentaria (Queensland); and at the jurisdictional level—Western Australia and Northern Territory.
Only small catches are reported from the Fishing Tour Operator sector, Coastal Line Fishery, Demersal Fishery and Timor Reef Fishery. Because Coral Trout are only an incidental catch in these fisheries and are rarely caught by recreational fishers [West et al. 2012], a semi-quantitative sustainable assessment for fishing effects model [Zhou and Griffiths 2008] was used to assess the fishing mortality rate on this species, using data up to 2015. The model results indicated that there is a low risk of Coral Trout being overfished at current levels of harvest, as there is a very low overlap of the fisheries activity and the distribution of Coral Trout in Northern Territory waters. The above evidence indicates that the biomass of this stock is unlikely to be depleted and that recruitment is unlikely to be impaired. Furthermore, the current level of fishing pressure is unlikely to cause the stock to become recruitment impaired.
On the basis of the evidence provided above, the Coral Trout species group in the Northern Territory is classified as a sustainable stock.
Coral Trout biology [Ferreira 1995, Frisch et al. 2016, Heupel et al. 2010, Kailola et al. 1993, Mapleston et al. 2009, Mapstone 2004, Samoilys 1997, Williams et al. 2008]
|Species||Longevity / Maximum Size||Maturity (50 per cent)|
|CORAL TROUTS||Plectropomus leopardus: 17 years, ~650 mm FL P. maculatus: 13 years, ~650 mm FL P. laevis: 16 years, ~1 150 mm FL P. areolatus: 14 years, ~650 mm FL Variola louti: 7 years, ~520 mm FL V. albimarginata: 12 years, ~380 mm FL||All species are protogynous hermaphrodites (individuals are born female and later become male). Size at maturity and sex change also vary by location. P. leopardus: female ~280 mm FL, male ~500 mm FL P. maculatus: female ~300 mm FL, male ~ 440 mm FL P|
Distribution of reported commercial catch of Coral Trout
|Hook and Line|
|Hook and Line|
|Hook and Line|
|Total allowable catch|
|Commercial||5.50kg in ACL, 335.00kg in CLF, 386.70kg in DF, 2.86t in TRF|
|Recreational||2.8 t (2010)|
- Aboriginal Coastal License (NT)
- Coastal Line Fishery (NT)
- Demersal Fishery (NT)
- Timor Reef Fishery (NT)
Commonwealth Data Provided for the Commonwealth and Queensland align with the 2014–15 financial year.
Western Australia and Northern Territory Data provided for Western Australia and the Northern Territory align with the 2017 calendar year.
Commonwealth – Recreational The Australian Government does not manage recreational fishing in Commonwealth waters. Recreational fishing in Commonwealth waters is managed by the state or territory immediately adjacent to those waters, under its management regulations.
Commonwealth – Indigenous The Australian Government does not manage non-commercial Indigenous fishing in Commonwealth waters (with the exception of the Torres Strait). In general, non-commercial Indigenous fishing in Commonwealth waters is managed by the state or territory immediately adjacent to those waters. In the Torres Strait, both commercial and non-commercial Indigenous fishing is managed by the Torres Strait Protected Zone Joint Authority (PZJA) through the Australian Fisheries Management Authority (Commonwealth), the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (Queensland), and the Torres Strait Regional Authority. The PZJA also manages non-Indigenous commercial fishing in the Torres Strait.
Western Australia – Commercial (management methods) In Western Australia, different zones within fisheries may have different effort allocations.
Western Australia – Active Vessels Data is confidential as there were fewer than three vessels operating in PFTIMF, PTMF and WCDGDLIMF.
Western Australia – Recreational (Catch) Boat-based recreational catch if from 1 September 2015–31 August 2016. These data are derived from those reported in Ryan et al. 2017.
Western Australia – Recreational (management methods) A Recreational Fishing from Boat Licence is required for the use of a powered boat to fish or to transport catch or fishing gear to or from a land-based fishing location.
Western Australia – Indigenous Subject to the defence that applies under Section 211 of the Native Title Act 1993 (Cth), and the exemption from a requirement to hold a recreational fishing licence, the non-commercial take by Indigenous fishers is covered by the same arrangements as that for recreational fishing.
Northern Territory – Charter (management methods) In the Northern Territory, charter operators are regulated through the same management methods as the recreational sector but are subject to additional limits on license and passenger numbers.
Northern Territory – Indigenous (management methods) The Fisheries Act 1988 (NT), specifies that “…without derogating from any other law in force in the Territory, nothing in a provision of this Act or an instrument of a judicial or administrative character made under it limits the right of Aboriginals who have traditionally used the resources of an area of land or water in a traditional manner from continuing to use those resources in that area in that manner”.
Queensland – Indigenous (management methods) Under the Fisheries Act 1994 (Qld), Indigenous fishers in Queensland are able to use prescribed traditional and non-commercial fishing apparatus in waters open to fishing. Size and possession limits, and seasonal closures do not apply to Indigenous fishers. Further exemptions to fishery regulations may be applied for through permits.
Commercial catch of Coral Trout - note confidential catch not shown
- Australian Institute of Marine Science 2018, Long-term Reef Monitoring Program – Annual summary report in coral reef condition for 2017–18
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- Bergenius, MAJ, Mapstone, BD, Begg, GA and Murchie, CD 2005, The use of otolith chemistry to determine stock structure of three epinepheline serranid coral reef fishes on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, Fisheries Research, 72: 253–270.
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