*

Blacklip Abalone (2018)

Haliotis rubra rubra

  • Craig Mundy (Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania)
  • Lachlan Strain (Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia)
  • Victorian Fisheries Authority (Victorian Fisheries Authority)
  • Rowan Chick (Department of Primary Industries, New South Wales)
  • Stephen Mayfield (South Australian Research and Development Institute)
  • Ben Stobart (South Australian Research and Development Institute)

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Summary

Blacklip Abalone is harvested in NSW, SA, TAS and VIC, with twelve management zones. Stocks are sustainable in four zones, depleting in 6 zones and depleted in 2 zones.

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Stock Status Overview

Stock status determination
Jurisdiction Stock Fisheries Stock status Indicators
Tasmania Tasmania Bass Strait Zone Fishery TBSZF Sustainable Catch, CPUE 
Tasmania Tasmania Central Western Zone Fishery TCWZF Depleted Catch, CPUE 
Tasmania Tasmania Eastern Zone Fishery TEZF Depleting Catch, CPUE 
Tasmania Tasmania Northern Zone Fishery TNZF Depleting Catch, CPUE 
Tasmania Tasmania Western Zone Fishery TWZF Sustainable Catch, CPUE 
TBSZF
Tasmanian Bass Strait Zone Fishery (TAS)
TCWZF
Tasmanian Central Western Zone Fishery (TAS)
TEZF
Tasmanian Eastern Zone Fishery (TAS)
TNZF
Tasmanian Northern Zone Fishery (TAS)
TWZF
Tasmanian Western Zone Fishery (TAS)
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Stock Structure

There are substantial difficulties in applying classical stock assessment models to abalone resources, given the possibly large number of stocks in each fishery. In some regions Haliotis rubra rubra also displays spatially variable growth rates and maturity curves. All jurisdictions therefore rely on indicators and empirical performance measures, primarily catch and catch per unit effort (CPUE; as kg of abalone harvested per hour). CPUE from individual fishing events is relevant locally but not indicative of status broadly [Parma et al. 2003], and status of the many populations in a management unit cannot be assumed to be trending in the same direction. Thus, the average CPUE across each spatial reporting unit provides the broader perspective for fishery assessment. The annual catch by Blacklip Abalone fisheries is generally close to the established total allowable commercial catches (TACCs), with little over-catch or under-catch of the TACC. In some jurisdictions, additional fishery-independent data (density, size composition) are available from underwater research surveys.

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Stock Status

There are substantial difficulties in applying classical stock assessment models to abalone resources, given the possibly large number of stocks in each fishery. In some regions Haliotis rubra rubra also displays spatially variable growth rates and maturity curves. All jurisdictions therefore rely on indicators and empirical performance measures, primarily catch and catch per unit effort (CPUE; as kg of abalone harvested per hour). CPUE from individual fishing events is relevant locally but not indicative of status broadly [Parma et al. 2003], and status of the many populations in a management unit cannot be assumed to be trending in the same direction. Thus, the average CPUE across each spatial reporting unit provides the broader perspective for fishery assessment. The annual catch by Blacklip Abalone fisheries is generally close to the established total allowable commercial catches (TACCs), with little over-catch or under-catch of the TACC. In some jurisdictions, additional fishery-independent data (density, size composition) are available from underwater research surveys.

Tasmania

The Tasmanian abalone fishery has been quota managed with an annual TACC since 1985, and up to 1999 there was a single Tasmanian TACC that did not differentiate between species or area. In response to increased regional fishing pressure through the late-1990s, separate TACCs for Greenlip Abalone and Blacklip Abalone were implemented in 2000, and the Blacklip Abalone fishery was divided into two zones: Eastern Blacklip, Western Blacklip. In addition, finer-scale reporting of fishing within sub-blocks was introduced. Further spatial partitioning of the Tasmanian Blacklip Abalone fishery occurred in 2001, with the northern areas of the Eastern and Western Zone classified as a Northern Blacklip Zone. In 2003, the Northern Zone was split into two zones (Northern Blacklip and Bass Strait Blacklip) with different size limits. In 2009, the Western Blacklip Zone was split into Western Blacklip and Central West Blacklip zones. In 2013 the boundary between the Western and Central West Blacklip zones was moved northwards.

A live export market established in the early 1990s increasing rapidly to take the majority of the catch by the early 2000s. More than 65 per cent of the total Tasmanian wild abalone harvest is now exported live to Asia, with the remaining fraction processed in canned or frozen form. Since the development of the live export market the beach price for abalone destined for live export has been marginally higher than for processed export markets. This price difference has substantially altered fishery dynamics and created significant assessment and management challenges for the past two decades. Initially the margin between live and processed export product was approximately $2/Kg. In 2017 the beach price for export quality live abalone was almost double the beach price for canned product, exacerbating challenges around avoiding spatially concentrated catch within quota years as fishers, processors and investors seek to maximise profits.

An empirical harvest strategy (HS) was developed for the Tasmanian abalone fisheries in 2014–15 and tested using Management Strategy Evaluation (MSE) [Buxton et al. 2015, Haddon et al. 2014, Haddon and Mundy 2016]. The HS was trialled in the Tasmanian abalone fishery assessment in 2015 and 2016, jointly with the previous ad hoc approach, and used as the basis of TACC decisions in 2017 [Mundy and McAllister 2018]. The HS assesses the fishery performance against target reference points for three performance measures (PM) derived from standardised CPUE (SCPUE) data: current CPUE relative to an agreed target (55th percentile of the annual standardised mean CPUE within the reference period); the four year gradient of CPUE (target gradient is zero); and the per cent change in CPUE in the past year (target change is zero). The reference period is adaptive, including all years from 1992 onwards. A scoring function is applied to the three PMs resulting in a score between zero and 10, where five is the target PM value and zero and 10 are the zone-wide lowest and highest values for that PM within the reference period. In the 2017 assessment, weightings were also applied to the three PMs at 065:0.25:01 respectively, as part of the control rule used to set the TACC from the performance measure scores. The HS is applied individually to each statistical reporting block, and a zone score is obtained from the mean block score weighted by block catch.

The zone target CPUEPM score is used as a proxy for biomass and the zone gradient SCPUE PM score is used as a proxy for fishing mortality. These proxies were developed specifically to meet the requirements of the SAFS assessment and reporting process, as a decision tool for determining when a fishery has transitioned across the threshold between two SAFS categories (e.g. depleting to depleted). However, these are relative indicators (detecting change over time) and are not considered to be indicative of actual biomass.

A target CPUE score of one is used as the limit reference point (LRP) defining the boundary between depleted and depleting for all Tasmanian management units. This LRP is typically five per cent above the lowest CPUE observed within the zone during the reference period. A negative zone gradient score gives evidence that fishing mortality is increasing, and the magnitude of the zone gradient provides some information on the magnitude of fishing mortality. The four year gradient PM score spans a possible range of negative five to positive five, giving a target reference point of zero, defining the boundary between sustainable and transitional–depleting classifications. The combination of a negative CPUE gradient and near-record low CPUE score represents a cautious proxy for the true recruitment overfished reference point. No reporting blocks have become depleted under this decision rule within the reference period, providing a degree of confidence that the LRP will prevent stock collapse, as predicted by MSE testing of the HS.

The draft Tasmanian Abalone Fishery Management Plan requires that size limits be established that protect abalone for two breeding seasons post-reproductive maturity. Research programs to obtain empirical data representing the geographic variability in growth rates and size at reproductive maturity have been underway since 1985, resulting in a range of LML regulations within the Tasmanian Blacklip Abalone fisheries ranging from 110–145 mm.

South Australia

In South Australia, the current harvest strategy in the Management Plan for the commercial abalone fishery [PIRSA 2012] produces a catch weighted determination of stock status for the fishing zone. However, the harvest strategy does not (1) identify performance indicators or reference points for classifying the fishery under the Status of Australian Fish Stocks framework; or (2) deliver a stock status consistent with fishery performance [Burnell et al. 2016, Stobart et al. 2016]. Concerns with the harvest strategy have resulted in a review currently underway. Consequently, in this assessment, a weight-of-evidence approach based on a range of indicators is used. Nominal commercial catch rates (CPUE based on meat weight in the Central and Western Zone management units and shell [whole] weight in the Southern Zone management unit), and densities from fishery-independent surveys, are used as the primary indices of relative South Australia Blacklip Abalone abundance [Burnell et al. 2016, Dowling et al. 2004, Shepherd and Rodda 2001, Stobart et al. 2016, Tarbath et al. 2014].

Tasmania Bass Strait Zone Fishery

Two different LMLs are in place (110 mm and 114 mm) in this zone, reflecting the variation in growth rates across the fishery. Since the creation of this zone in 2003, catch and SCPUE have been relatively stable. The Bass Strait Zone was closed in 2007 due to concerns around the possible risk of transferring abalone viral ganglioneuritis (AVG) from Victoria to Tasmania and re-opened in 2008. In 2016, the TACC for the Bass Strait Zone was increased to 77 t on request from industry based on increasing catch rates and retained for 2017. In 2017 the zone-wide catch weighted mean SCPUE declined from 91.6 Kg/Hr in 2016 to 82.7 in 2017, compared with 79.1 kg per hour when the zone was established in 2003 [Mundy and McAllister 2018]. However, the zone-wide proxy for biomass is 6.6, well above the LRP, and the zone-wide proxy for fishing mortality is 0.5, just above the TRP for sustainability [Mundy and McAllister 2018].

The above evidence indicates that stocks in the Tasmania Bass Strait Zone are unlikely to be recruitment overfished and that the current level of fishing pressure is unlikely to cause these stocks to become recruitment overfished.

On the basis of the evidence provided above, the Tasmania Bass Strait Zone Fishery management unit is classified as a sustainable stock.

Tasmania Central Western Zone Fishery

The Tasmania Central Western Zone Fishery management unit has a LML of 132 mm. This part of the west coast was underexploited in the early- to mid-2000s [Mundy and McAllister 2018], with fishing concentrated on southern areas where higher beach prices were achievable for the live market. Spatial management measures were used to shift effort into this region in 2009. SCPUE has oscillated over the past 15 years, but has declined rapidly over the past five years, suggesting the biomass has been reduced. During 2012, 127 t was harvested from this area. In response to declining catch rates, the TACC in this management unit was reduced in 2013 to 105.1 t, in 2014 to 73.5 t, in 2015 to 52.5 t, in 2016 to 42 t, and in 2017 to 35 t. The intention was to continue reducing the TACC until there is clear evidence of stock rebuilding [Mundy and McAllister 2018].

The mean SCPUE in 2017 declined further to a historic low of 50.0 kg per hour compared with an SCPUE of 136.5 kg per hour when this zone was created in 2009. The rate of decline in SCPUE since 2012 has been sharp despite five consecutive TACC reductions. By late 2017 there was no evidence of rebuilding and future catch was set at 10 t (a 92 per cent reduction on 2012 catch levels). The 2017 zone-wide proxy for biomass is 0.7, below the LRP, while the proxy for fishing mortality is -2.9, which is below the TRP for sustainability [Mundy and McAllister 2018]. The above evidence indicates that the biomass of this stock is likely to be depleted and that recruitment is likely to be impaired.

On the basis of the evidence provided above, the Tasmania Central Western Zone Fishery management unit is classified as a depleted stock.

Tasmania Eastern Zone Fishery

The majority of the Tasmania Eastern Zone Fishery management unit has a LML of 138 mm, while the LML for a small area around Freycinet is set at 145 mm as part of a rebuilding program [Mundy and McAllister 2018]. Relative stock biomass in this fishery (estimated using SCPUE as a proxy) has oscillated widely since 1992, with evidence of an approximate eight year cycle [Mundy and McAllister 2018]. Based on declining mean SCPUE between 2000 (76 kg per hour) and 2003 (53.8 kg per hour), the TACC was reduced from 1 190 t to 857 t in 2002 and to 770 t in 2004 [Tarbath and Mundy 2004]. Subsequent increases in SCPUE and increasing median length of the commercial catch led to increases in the TACC by five per cent in 2008, 2009 and 2010 [Tarbath and Gardner 2011], resulting in a TACC of 896 t by 2010. Between 2007 and 2009, the mean SCPUE was stable at around 90 kg per hour, but reports from divers suggested the resource was declining in late-2009. Subsequent rapid declines in SCPUE in late-2010 resulted in a reduced TACC of 721 t for 2011. Mortality (per cent unknown) of abalone in the wild across a large proportion of the Eastern Zone was observed in March 2010, coincident with a marine heat wave. Further rapid decline in SCPUE in 2011 resulted in an additional TACC reduction to 549.5 t for 2012. In 2013, minor reductions in the TACC to 528.5 t were made to address local concerns in one sub-region and held for 2014 and 2015 [Mundy and McAllister 2018].

The most significant marine heat wave ever recorded on the east coast of Tasmania peaked in March 2016, with mortalities observed along the central and southern east coast [Oliver et al. 2017, Oliver et al. 2018]. In June 2016, a significant winter storm with the largest swells recorded in a 36 year time series impacted stocks on coastlines exposed to a north-easterly direction [Mundy and Jones 2017], with immediate impacts on abalone availability. In 2017, the mean SCPUE declined to 56.6 kg per hour. Stock rebuilding observed in several key areas of the Tasmania Eastern Zone in 2014 and 2015 ceased in 2016. In late 2017, industry and the assessment team were concerned about abalone abundance in the areas worst affected by the MHW and winter storm from Cape Pillar to Eddystone Point and imposed a 75 per cent TACC reduction for 2018. Overall, the zone-wide proxy for biomass is 2.5, above the LRP of 1, but the zone-wide proxy for fishing mortality is -0.1, below the TRP for sustainability [Mundy and McAllister 2018].

The above evidence indicates that the current level of fishing pressure combined with environmental effects is likely to cause this stock to become depleted and recruitment to become impaired.

On the basis of the evidence provided above, the Tasmanian Eastern Zone Fishery management unit is classified as a depleting stock.

Tasmania Northern Zone Fishery

The geographic variability in growth dynamics within the Tasmania Northern Zone is reflected in three different LMLs (120 mm, 127 mm and 132 mm) [Mundy and McAllister 2018]. Regional catch and catch rates have varied between 2000 and 2015 as a function of changing market preference and adaptive management, including effort redistribution and change in LML. The majority of abalone landed from this zone are traditionally unsuited to the live market, and are processed for canned or frozen markets. In 2008, the first of two industry-driven experimental fisheries to improve fish quality commenced in Block 5 with a reduction in LML from 132–127 mm and a 50 t increase in catch, and a second industry-driven experimental fishery commenced in Block 49 in 2011, increasing the TACC for the Northern Zone to a peak of 402.5 t. This initiative was not successful [Jones et al. 2014] and has had longer-term negative impacts on biomass. SCPUE varies across different geographic regions within the Northern Zone, but SCPUECW for the zone has fallen in all the key fishing grounds targeted in the industry program over the past five years despite TACC reductions every year from 2012 to 2017 [Appendix D, Mundy and McAllister 2018]. The mean SCPUECW in 2007 prior to the industry experiments was 93.1 kg per hour at a TACC of 280 t, compared with a mean SCPUECW of 60.2 kg per hour in 2017 at a TACC of 148 t [Mundy and McAllister 2018]. The rate of decline in SCPUE since 2012 has been sharp, despite consecutive TACC reductions. The zone-wide proxy for biomass is 1.6, marginally above the LRP, while the proxy for fishing mortality is -0.7, which is below the TRP for sustainability [Mundy and McAllister 2018].

The above evidence indicates that the stock is unlikely to be depleted, but that the current level of fishing pressure is likely to cause this stock to become depleted and recruitment to become impaired.

On the basis of the evidence provided above, the Tasmania Northern Zone Fishery management unit is classified as a depleting stock.

Tasmania Western Zone Fishery

The Tasmania Western Zone Fishery management unit has a LML of 140 mm. In 1993–99, the majority of the Western Zone was under-fished (catches ranging from 500–750 t) with effort concentrated in the Eastern Zone where a higher beach price could be achieved. This resulted in substantial accumulation of biomass and high catch rates (1993 mean SCPUECW 104.5 kg per hour; 1999 mean SCPUECW 163.0 kg per hour). With the introduction of zones in 2000–01 to manage the distribution of effort, the Western Zone TACC was elevated to 1260 t [Mundy and McAllister 2018], and remained at this level through to 2008, with mean SCPUECW declining to below 130 kg per hour. Widespread selective fishing for smaller animals less than 160 mm SL, considered to be damaging to the resource at this time, along with long-term declines in SCPUE, led to the zonal restructure and implementation of spatial catch limits set annually for four geographic regions within this zone, to prevent excess catches in response to economic pressures. The TACC in this management unit was reduced in 2009 to 924 t. In 2013, Blocks 7 and 8 were moved from the Central Western Zone back into the Western Zone and the TACC increased to 1001 t, associated with the increased fishing area, but effectively retaining the same level of catch as in 2012 [Tarbath and Mundy 2014]. In 2013, mean SCPUECW declined to 111.7 kg per hour triggering a TACC reduction to 840 t in 2014, maintained for 2015. In 2016 the TACC was reduced by 123 t to 717 t. In 2015 the mean SCPUECW had declined to 91.9 kg per hour, but by 2017 mean SCPUECW had increased again to 107.5 Kg per hour. The zone-wide proxy for biomass is 3.1, marginally above the LRP, while the proxy for fishing mortality is 2.8, and above the TRP for sustainability [Mundy and McAllister 2018].

The above evidence indicates that stocks in the Tasmania Western Zone are unlikely to be depleted and that the current level of fishing pressure is unlikely to cause these stocks to become recruitment impaired.

On the basis of the evidence provided above, the Tasmania Western Zone Fishery management unit is classified as a sustainable stock.

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Biology

Blacklip Abalone biology [Officer 1999, Shepherd 1973, Tarbath et al. 2001, Tarbath and Officer 2003]

Biology
Species Longevity / Maximum Size Maturity (50 per cent)
Blacklip Abalone 20–50 years, 150–220 mm SL  ~ 5 years, 80–130 mm SL  
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Distributions

Distribution of reported commercial catch of Blacklip Abalone

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Tables

Fishing methods
Tasmania
Commercial
Diving
Indigenous
Diving
Recreational
Diving
Management methods
Method Tasmania
Commercial
Limited entry
Size limit
Spatial closures
Total allowable catch
Indigenous
Customary fishing permits
Size limit
Recreational
Bag and possession limits
Size limit
Catch
Tasmania
Commercial 75.24t in TBSZF, 34.01t in TCWZF, 440.17t in TEZF, 145.58t in TNZF, 697.00t in TWZF
Indigenous Unknown
Recreational 36 t
TBSZF
Tasmanian Bass Strait Zone Fishery (TAS)
TCWZF
Tasmanian Central Western Zone Fishery (TAS)
TEZF
Tasmanian Eastern Zone Fishery (TAS)
TNZF
Tasmanian Northern Zone Fishery (TAS)
TWZF
Tasmanian Western Zone Fishery (TAS)

New South Wales – Indigenous (Management Methods) (a) The Aboriginal cultural fishing authority is the authority that Indigenous persons can apply to take catches outside the recreational limits under the Fisheries Management Act 1994 (NSW), Section 37 (1d)(3)(9), Aboriginal cultural fishing authority; (b) In cases where the Native Title Act 1993 (Cth) applies fishing activity can be undertaken by the person holding native title in line with S.211 of that Act, which provides for fishing activities for the purpose of satisfying their personal, domestic or non-commercial communal needs. In managing the resource where native title has been formally recognised, the native title holders are engaged with to ensure their native title rights are respected and inform management of the State's fisheries resources.

Victoria Indigenous (Management Methods) In Victoria, regulations for managing recreational fishing may not apply to fishing activities by Indigenous people. Victorian traditional owners may have rights under the Commonwealth's Native Title Act 1993 to hunt, fish, gather and conduct other cultural activities for their personal, domestic or non-commercial communal needs without the need to obtain a licence. Traditional Owners that have agreements under the Traditional Owner Settlement Act 2010 (Vic) may also be authorised to fish without the requirement to hold a recreational fishing licence. Outside of these arrangements, Indigenous Victorians can apply for permits under the Fisheries Act 1995 (Vic) that authorise fishing for specific Indigenous cultural ceremonies or events (for example, different catch and size limits or equipment).

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Catch Chart

Commercial catch of Blacklip Abalone - note confidential catch not shown

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References

  1. Burnell, O, Mayfield, S and Bailleul, F 2018, Central Zone Greenlip Abalone (Haliotis laevigata) and Blacklip Abalone (H. rubra) fishery in 2017. Report for PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture. South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide. SARDI Publication No. F2007/000611-9. SARDI Research Report Series No. 1003. 84pp.
  2. Burnell, O, Mayfield, S, Ferguson, G and Carroll J 2016, Central Zone Abalone (Haliotis laevigata & H. rubra) Fishery. Fishery Assessment Report for PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture. 2016.
  3. Buxton, CD, Cartright, I, Dichmont, C, Mayfield, S and Plaganyi EE 2015, Review of the Harvest Strategy and MCDA process for the Tasmanian Abalone Fishery. Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies.
  4. Dowling, NA, Hall, SJ and McGarvey R 2004, Assessing population sustainability and response to fishing in terms of aggregation structure for Greenlip Abalone (Haliotis laevigata) fishery management. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 2004; 61: 247–259.
  5. Ferguson, G, Mayfield, S and Hogg, A 2018, Status of the Southern Zone Blacklip (Haliotis rubra) and Greenlip (H. laevigata) Abalone Fisheries in 2016/17. Report for PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture. South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide. SARDI Publication No. F2014/000359-3. SARDI Research Report Series No. 985. 29pp.
  6. Gorfine, H, Bell, J, Mills, K, Lewis, Z 2012, Removing sea urchins (Centrostephanus rodgersii) to recover abalone (Haliotis rubra) habitat. Department of Primary Industries, Queenscliff, Victoria, Australia.
  7. Gorfine, H, Day, R, Bardos, D, Taylor, B, Prince J and Sainsbury K 2008, Rapid response to abalone virus depletion in western Victoria: information acquisition and reefcode assessment, final report to the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, project 2007-066. The University of Melbourne.
  8. Gorfine, H, Taylor, B, Smith, DC. 2002, Abalone – 2001, Fisheries Victoria Assessment Report No 43. Marine and Freshwater Resources Institute, Queenscliff.
  9. Haddon, M, Mayfield, S, Helidoniotis, F, Chick, R and Mundy C 2014, Identification and Evaluation of Performance Indicators for Abalone Fisheries. FRDC Final Report 2007/020. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Hobart
  10. Haddon, M, Mundy C 2016, Testing abalone empirical harvest strategies, for setting TACs and associated LMLs, that include the use of novel spatially explicit performance measures. CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Hobart.
  11. Hart A, 2016, Review of fixed sites surveys used by the Victorian Abalone Science Program. Western Australian Fisheries and Marine Research Laboratories. 40pp.
  12. Helidoniotis F and Haddon M 2014, Modelling the potential for recovery of Western Victorian abalone stocks: The Crags. Interim Report to 2012/225. CSIRO, Hobart.
  13. Internal Report: East Coast Abalone Assessment
  14. Liggins G and Upston J 2010. Investigating and managing the Perkinsus-related mortality of Blacklip Abalone in NSW. Final report to the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation for Project No. 2004/084. Industry & Investment – Fisheries Final Report Series No. 120. Cronulla, NSW, Australia. 182pp.
  15. Mayfield, S, McGarvey, R, Gorfine, HK, Peeters, H, Burch, P and Sharma S 2011, Survey estimates of fishable biomass following a mass mortality in an Australian molluscan fishery. Journal of Fish Diseases 2011; 34: 287–302.
  16. Miller, KJ, Maynard, BT, Mundy, CN 2009, Genetic diversity and gene flow in collapsed and healthy abalone fisheries. Molecular Ecology 2009; 18: 200–211.
  17. Mundy C and Jones H 2017, 'Tasmanian Abalone Fishery Assessment 2016', Technical report, Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies Report. University of Tasmania, Hobart, 163.
  18. Mundy, C and McAllister J 2018, Tasmanian Abalone Fishery Assessment 2017. Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies Report. University of Tasmania, Hobart.
  19. Oliver, ECJ, Benthuysen, JA, Bindoff, NL, Hobday, AJ, Holbrook, NJ, Mundy, CN and Perkins-Kirkpatrick SE 2017, The unprecedented 2015/16 Tasman Sea marine heatwave, Nature Communications 8, 1–12.
  20. Oliver, ECJ, Lago, V, Hobday, AJ, Holbrook, NJ, Ling SD and Mundy CN 2018, 'Marine heatwaves off eastern Tasmania: Trends, interannual variability, and predictability', Progress in Oceanography 161, 116–30.
  21. Parma, AM, Orensanz, JM, Elías I and Jerez, G 2003, Diving for shellfish and data: incentives for the participation of fishers in the monitoring and management of artisanal fisheries around southern South America, in Newman, SJ, Gaughan, DJ, Jackson, G, Mackie, MC, Molony, B, St John, J and Kailola, P eds, 'Australian Society for Fish Biology Workshop Proceedings - Towards Sustainability of Data-Limited Multi-Sector Fisheries'. 8–29.
  22. PIRSA 2012, Management Plan for the South Australian commercial abalone fishery. 2012.
  23. Prince, JD, Sellers, TL, Ford, WB, Talbot, SR 1987, Experimental-Evidence for Limited Dispersal of Haliotid Larvae (Genus Haliotis, Mollusca, Gastropoda). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 1987; 106: 243–263.
  24. Shepherd, S and Rodda KR 2001, Sustainability demands vigilance: Evidence for serial decline of the Greenlip Abalone fishery and a review of management. 2001; 20: 829–841.
  25. Shepherd, SA 1973, 'Studies on southern Australian abalone (genus Haliotis) I. Ecology of five sympatric species', Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 24, 217–257.
  26. Size limits and yield for Blacklip Abalone in northern Tasmania. TAFI Technical Report Series, No 17. University of Tasmania, pp37.
  27. Size limits for Greenlip Abalone in Tasmania. TAFI Technical Report Series, No 5. University of Tasmania, pp48.
  28. Stobart, B and Mayfield S 2016, Status of the Western Zone Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra) fishery in 2015. Report for PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture. 2016.
  29. Stobart, B, Mayfield, S and Heldt, K 2017, Western Zone Blacklip (Haliotis rubra) and Greenlip (H. laevigata) fisheries in 2016. Report for PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture. South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide. SARDI Publication No. F2017/000331-1. SARDI Research Report Series No. 964. 91pp.
  30. Stobart, B, Mayfield, S and Heldt, K 2018, Western Zone Greenlip Abalone (Haliotis laevigata) and Blacklip Abalone (H. rubra) fisheries in 2017. Report for PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture. South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide. SARDI Publication No. F2017/000331-2. SARDI Research Report Series No. 994. 111pp.
  31. TACSRC 2015, NSW Total Allowable Catch Committee Report and Determination for 2016 – Abalone Fishery. New South Wales Government.
  32. TACSRC 2017, NSW Total Allowable Catch Setting and Review Committee. 2017. Report and Determination 2018 – Abalone Fishery. New South Wales Government.
  33. Tarbath, D and Gardner C 2011, Tasmanian Abalone Fishery Assessment 2010. Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute.
  34. Tarbath, D and Mundy C 2004, Tasmanian Abalone Fishery 2003. Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute.
  35. Tarbath, D, Mundy C and Gardner C 2014, Tasmanian Abalone Fishery Assessment 2013. Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies.
  36. Temby, N, Miller, K, Mundy, C 2007, Evidence of genetic subdivision among populations of blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra Leach) in Tasmania. Marine and Freshwater Research 2007; 58: 733–742.
  37. VFA 2017a, 2016/17 Victorian Abalone Stock Assessment – Central Zone. Victorian Fisheries Authority Science Report Series No. 2. Victorian Government: Melbourne, 56 pp.
  38. VFA 2017b, 2016/17 Victorian Abalone Stock Assessment – Eastern Zone. Victorian Fisheries Authority Science Report Series No. 3. Victorian Government: Melbourne, 43 pp.
  39. VFA 2017c, 2016/17 Victorian Abalone Stock Assessment – Western Zone. Victorian Fisheries Authority Science Report Series No. 4. Victorian Government: Melbourne, 48 pp.
  40. Victorian Department of Natural Resources and Environment. 1996. Draft abalone management plan. Victorian Fisheries Program. The Department of Natural Resources and Environment: Melbourne.
  41. WADA 2016, Assessment of abalone stocks in Western Zone, Victoria: Submission to the TAC setting process for 2017 November 2016. WADA.

Archived reports

Click the links below to view reports from other years for this fish.