Giant Crab (2018)
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Giant Crab occurs from WA to TAS but it is considered a single biological stock. Nevertheless, stocks are classified separately for the four states. Stock is sustainable in WA, SA and VIC, and depleted in TAS.
Stock Status Overview
|Victoria||Giant Crab Fishery (Victoria)||GCF||Sustainable||CPUE, catch, effort, proportion of spawning stock protected by minimum size limits|
- Giant Crab Fishery (VIC)
Giant Crab is considered to be a single biological stock from Western Australia to Tasmania because the species occurs is continuously distributed across this range. Planktonic larval duration is around 50 days, with larval release occurring along the edge of the continental shelf. The shelf is a high current area, facilitating dispersal, and oceanographic modeling has indicated that Giant Crab dispersal occurs over large spatial scales [Gardner 1998, Gardner and Quintana 1998, Williams et. al. 2009].
Previous Status of Australian Fish Stocks reports on Giant Crab provided an overall assessment for this assumed biological stock. However, there have been significant changes in the relative performance of the various fisheries operating across this stock since 2014. New information indicates that Giant Crab are now considered to be depleted in Tasmania but sustainable in Western Australia. It is difficult to reconcile these differences in regional depletion levels under an assumption of a single stock. But management arrangements also vary across jurisdictions and the fishing fleets in each jurisdiction consist of vessels with different characteristics, resulting in different patterns of exploitation.
Assessment of stock status is presented here at the jurisdictional level—Western Australia and South Australia; and the management unit level—Giant Crab Fishery (Victoria) and Giant Crab Fishery (Tasmania).
Giant Crab Fishery (Victoria)
Management of Giant Crab fishing mortality in Victoria is achieved through a TACC and legal minimum length (LML, 150 mm carapace length) to protect mature undersized crabs. The LML aims to ensure that egg production remains at no less than 40 per cent of unfished levels [McGarvey et al. 1999]. However, there is considerable uncertainty around the growth rates and sizes at maturity of larger females and hence in the degree of protection provided by these limits. Setting of an annual TACC occurs according to the performance measures and strategies specified in the Victorian Giant Crab Fishery Management Plan [Fisheries Victoria 2010]. Catch per unit effort (CPUE ) is the primary indicator of Giant Crab biomass and is expressed as the catch taken per 24-hour pot-lift, by fishers landing more than 1 t in a fishing year. The TACC was set at 25 t from 2002–11 but was decreased over several years in response to declining catch rates, to 10.5 t in 2014–15, and has since been maintained at this level. A review of standardisation methods to account for soak time was implemented in 2015 and has estimated that CPUE has been stable at an average of 0.96 kg/24-hour pot-lift for the five years since 2010–11. This is above the limit reference point of 0.52 kg/24-hour pot-lift for the fishery [VFA 2016]. The CPUE estimate for 2016–17 increased to 1.26 kg/24-hour pot-lift. Assessments of the status of the Victorian component of the Giant Crab stock are uncertain due to the lack of fishery independent data, the reduction to a single operator for all targeted effort in the fishery, recent changes to fishing practices, a decrease in the spatial distribution of effort and a decline in non-targeted Giant Crab catch. Nonetheless, the above evidence indicates that the biomass of this stock is unlikely to be depleted, that recruitment is unlikely to be impaired, and that the current level of fishing mortality is unlikely to cause the stock to become recruitment impaired.
On the basis of the evidence presented above, the Giant Crab Fishery (Victoria) management unit is classified as a sustainable stock.
Giant Crab biology [Gardner 1998, McGarvey et. al. 1999, Williams et. al. 2009,]
|Species||Longevity / Maximum Size||Maturity (50 per cent)|
|Giant Crab||≥ 30 years, > 200 mm CL , ~10 kg||125–140 mm CL, depending on region|
|Customary fishing permits|
|Indigenous||Unknown (No catch under permit)|
South Australian data are from quota holders in the 2016–17 fishing season (October 2016–May 2017), Victorian data are for the 2016–17 fishing season (November 2016–September 2017), Tasmanian data are for the 2017-18 fishing season (March 2017 – February 2018) and South Coast Deep Sea Crustacean Fishery (Western Australia) data are for the 2016–17 financial year. Victoria – Indigenous (management methods) In Victoria, regulations for managing recreational fishing may not apply to fishing activities by Indigenous people. Victorian traditional owners may have rights under the Commonwealth's Native Title Act 1993 to hunt, fish, gather and conduct other cultural activities for their personal, domestic or non-commercial communal needs without the need to obtain a licence. Traditional Owners that have agreements under the Traditional Owner Settlement Act 2010 (Vic) may also be authorised to fish without the requirement to hold a recreational fishing licence. Outside of these arrangements, Indigenous Victorians can apply for permits under the Fisheries Act 1995 (Vic) that authorise fishing for specific Indigenous cultural ceremonies or events (for example, different catch and size limits or equipment). There were no Indigenous permits granted in 2017 and hence no Indigenous catch recorded.
- Emery, T, Hartmann K and Gardner C, 2015, Giant Crab stock assessment report 2013/14, IMAS, Hobart.
- Fisheries Victoria 2010, Giant Crab Management Plan, Second Edition, ISBN 978-1-74264-478-3.
- Fogarty, MJ and Gendron, L 2004, Biological reference points for American lobster (Homarus americanus) populations: limits to exploitation and the precautionary approach, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 61(8): 1392–1403.
- Gardner, C 1998, First record of larvae of the Giant Crab Pseudocarcinus gigas in the plankton, Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania, 132: 47–48.
- Gardner, C and Quintana R 1998, Larval development of the Australian Giant Crab Pseudocarcinus gigas (Lamarck, 1818) (Decapoda: Oziidae) reared in the laboratory, Journal of Plankton Research, 20(6): 1169–1188.
- Gardner, C, Haddon, M, Hobday,D and McGarvey R 2007, Development of the tools for long term management of the Giant Crab resource: data collection methodology, stock assessment and harvest strategy evaluation, final report to the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra.
- McGarvey, R, Matthews, JM and Levings, AH 1999, Yield-, value-, and egg-per-recruit of Giant Crab, Pseudocarcinus gigas, South Australian Research and Development Institute, Adelaide.
- McLeay, L 2018, Stock status report for the South Australian South Australian Giant Crab (Pseudocarcinus gigas) Fishery 2016/17. Fishery Status Report to PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture. South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide. SARDI Publication No. F2011/000332-7. SARDI Research Report Series No. 976.
- PIRSA 2018, Management Policy for Commercial Fishing of Giant Crabs in South Australia. Primary Industries and Regions South Australia. Adelaide, Australia.
- Victorian Giant Crab Fishery Stock Assessment Report: 2015/16 Fishing Season.
- Williams, A, Gardner, C, Althaus, F, Barker, B and Mills D 2009, Understanding shelf-break habitat for sustainable management of fisheries with spatial overlap, final report to the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, project 2004/066, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart.