Gummy Shark (2018)
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Gummy Shark is a sustainable species found throughout Australia’s temperate waters. It occurs from Geraldton in WA around to Jervis Bay in NSW, and in TAS. There is also an undefined stock in NSW from Newcastle north to the Clarence River.
Stock Status Overview
|New South Wales||Eastern Australia||OTF, OTLF||Undefined|
- Ocean Trawl Fishery (NSW)
- Ocean Trap and Line Fishery (NSW)
Gummy Shark (Mustelus antarcticus) is distributed throughout the temperate waters of Australia, from at least Port Stephens in New South Wales, to Geraldton in Western Australia (including Tasmania) [Gardner and Ward 2002, Last and Stevens 2009]. The most recent research on biological stock structure for Gummy Shark [White and Last 2008] suggests there is most likely one biological stock in southern Australia (extending from the lower west coast of Western Australia to Jervis Bay in New South Wales) and a second biological stock in eastern Australia (extending from Newcastle to the Clarence River in New South Wales). Conventional tagging showed adult Gummy Sharks exhibit broad-scale displacements from tagging locations of up to 2 362 km in 6.8 years, yet only 15 per cent of adults were recaptured > 250 km from the tagging location. The mean displacement was approximately 150 km [Walker 2000]. Acoustic tagging in Western Australia showed comparable movements, with average long-distance displacements of 238 km and maximum displacements of > 900 km [Braccini et al. 2017].
Here, assessment of stock status is presented at the biological stock level—Southern Australia and Eastern Australia.
Available information indicates that there is little catch of Gummy Shark (less than 50 t per year) from the Eastern Australia biological stock [Rowling et al. 2010]. In the 2017 calendar year, the total catch was around 23 t. There is insufficient information available to confidently classify the status of this stock.
On the basis of the evidence provided above, the Eastern Australia biological stock is classified as an undefined stock.
Gummy Shark biology [Moulton et al. 1992, Walker 2007, Walker 2010]
|Species||Longevity / Maximum Size||Maturity (50 per cent)|
|Gummy Shark||16 years, 1 850 mm TL (25 kg total body mass)||Females 1 105–1 253 mm TL Males 950–1 133 mm TL|
|New South Wales|
|Hook and Line|
|Hook and Line|
|Method||New South Wales|
|New South Wales|
|Commercial||12.44t in OTF, 10.37t in OTLF|
- Ocean Trawl Fishery (NSW)
- Ocean Trap and Line Fishery (NSW)
Commonwealth – Recreational The Australian Government does not manage recreational fishing in Commonwealth waters. Recreational fishing in Commonwealth waters is managed by the state or territory immediately adjacent to those waters, under its management regulations. Commonwealth – Indigenous The Australian Government does not manage non-commercial Indigenous fishing in Commonwealth waters, with the exception of the Torres Strait. In general, non-commercial Indigenous fishing in Commonwealth waters is managed by the state or territory immediately adjacent to those waters.
Western Australia – Recreational (Management methods) A recreational fishing from boat licence is required for recreational fishing from a powered vessel in Western Australia.
New South Wales Data provided for New South Wales align with the 2016–17 fiscal year with all vessels active in the fishery included (irrespective of whether they reported landing this species). The New South Wales EGF, OTF and OTLF fish both the Southern Australian and Eastern Australian stocks.
New South Wales – Indigenous (Management Methods) (a Aboriginal Cultural Fishing Interim Access Arrangement—allows an Indigenous fisher in New South Wales to take in excess of a recreational bag limit in certain circumstances; for example, if they are doing so to provide fish to other community members who cannot harvest for themselves, (b) The Aboriginal cultural fishing authority is the authority that Indigenous persons can apply to take catches outside the recreational limits under the Fisheries Management Act 1994 (NSW), Section 37 (1d)(3)(9), Aboriginal cultural fishing authority, and (c) In cases where the Native Title Act 1993 (Cth) applies fishing activity can be undertaken by the person holding native title in line with S.211 of that Act, which provides for fishing activities for the purpose of satisfying their personal, domestic or non-commercial communal needs. In managing the resource where native title has been formally recognised, the native title holders are engaged with to ensure their native title rights are respected and inform management of the State's fisheries resources.
Victoria – Indigenous In Victoria, regulations for managing recreational fishing may not apply to fishing activities by Indigenous people. Victorian traditional owners may have rights under the Commonwealth's Native Title Act 1993 to hunt, fish, gather and conduct other cultural activities for their personal, domestic or non-commercial communal needs without the need to obtain a licence. Traditional Owners that have agreements under the Traditional Owner Settlement Act 2010 (Vic) may also be authorised to fish without the requirement to hold a recreational fishing licence. Outside of these arrangements, Indigenous Victorians can apply for permits under the Fisheries Act 1995 (Vic) that authorise fishing for specific Indigenous cultural ceremonies or events (for example, different catch and size limits or equipment). There were no Indigenous permits granted in 2017 and hence no Indigenous catch recorded.
Tasmania – Recreational (Management Methods) In Tasmania, a recreational licence is required for fishers using dropline or longline gear, along with nets, such as gillnet or beach seine. Tasmania – Indigenous (Management Methods) In Tasmania, Indigenous people engaged in aboriginal fishing activities in marine waters are exempt from holding recreational fishing licences, but must comply with all other fisheries rules as if they were licensed. Additionally, recreational bag and possession limits also apply. If using pots, rings, set lines or gillnets, Aborigines must obtain a unique identifying code (UIC). The policy document Recognition of Aboriginal Fishing Activities for issuing a UIC to a person for Aboriginal Fishing activity explains the steps to take in making an application for a UIC.
- Braccini, M, Hesp, A, Molony, B and Blay, N in prep. Resource Assessment Report Whiskery, Gummy, Dusky and Sandbar Shark Resource of Western Australia. Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development.
- Braccini, M, Rensing, K, Langlois, T and McAuley, R 2017, Acoustic monitoring reveals the broad-scale movements of commercially-important sharks. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 577:121–129.
- Gardner, MG and Ward, RD 2002, Taxonomic affinities within Australian and New Zealand Mustelus sharks inferred from allozymes, mitochondrial DNA and precaudal vertebrae counts, Copeia, 2002(2): 356–363.
- Giri, K and Hall, K 2015, South Australian Recreational Fishing Survey. Fisheries Victoria Internal Report Series No. 62.
- Last, PR and Stevens, JD 2009 Sharks and rays of Australia, CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.
- Moulton, PL, Walker, TI and Sadlier, SR 1992, Age and growth studies of Gummy Shark, Mustelus antarcticus (Günther), and school shark, Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus), from southern-Australian waters, Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 43: 1241–1267.
- Punt, A, Thomson, R and Sporcic, M 2016, Gummy shark assessment update for 2016, using data to the end of 2015, report presented to the SharkRAG meeting, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart.
- Rogers, PJ, Tsolos, A, Boyle, MK and Steer, M 2017, South Australian Charter Boat Fishery Data Summary. Final Report to PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture. South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide. SARDI Publication No. F2011/000437-2. SARDI Research Report Series No. 967. 17pp.
- Rowling, K, Hegarty A and Ives M 2010, Gummy Shark (Mustelus antarcticus), in K Rowling, A Hegarty and M Ives (eds), Status of fisheries resources in NSW 2008/09, Industry and Investment New South Wales, Cronulla, 392.
- Steer, MA, Fowler, AJ, McGarvey, R, Feenstra, J, Westlake, EL, Matthews, D, Drew, M, Rogers, PJ and Earl, J 2018, Assessment of the South Australian Marine Scalefish Fishery in 2016. Report to PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture. South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide. SARDI Publication No. F2017/000427-1. SARDI Research Report Series No. 974. 250pp.
- Victorian Fisheries Authority. 2017. Review of key Victorian fish stocks—2017. Victorian Fisheries Authority Science Report Series No. 1.
- Walker, TI 1992, Fishery Simulation Model for Sharks Applied to the Gummy Shark, Mustelus antarcticus Gunther, from Southern Australian Waters. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 43.
- Walker, TI 2007, Spatial and temporal variation in the reproductive biology of Gummy Shark Mustelus antarcticus (Chondrichthyes: Triakidae) harvested off southern Australia, Marine and Freshwater Research, 58: 67–97.
- Walker, TI 2010, Population biology and dynamics of the Gummy Shark (Mustelus antarcticus) harvested off southern Australia, PhD thesis, University of Melbourne.
- White, WT and Last, PR 2008, Description of two new species of gummy sharks, genus Mustelus (Carcharhiniformes: Triakidae), from Australian waters, in PR Last, WT White and JJ Pogonoski (eds), Descriptions of new Australian chondrichthyans, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research paper 22, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Canberra, 189–202.