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AUSTRALIAN SALMONS

Arripis trutta, Arripis truttaceus, Arripis trutta & Arripis truttaceus

  • John Stewart (Department of Primary Industries, New South Wales)
  • Anthony Fowler (South Australian Research and Development Institute)
  • James Andrews (Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources, Victoria)
  • Jeremy Lyle (Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania)
  • Kim Smith (Department of Fisheries, Western Australia)
  • Timothy Emery (Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania)

You are currently viewing a report filtered by jurisdiction. View the full report.

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Stock Status Overview

Stock status determination
Jurisdiction Stock Fisheries Stock status Indicators
Western Australia Western Australia SCSMF, WCBBFNMF, SWCSMF, WL (SC) Sustainable Fishing mortality, catch, effort, catch rates
SCSMF
South Coast Salmon Managed Fishery (WA)
WCBBFNMF, SWCSMF, WL (SC)
West Coast (Beach Bait Fish Net) Managed Fishery, South West Coast Salmon Managed Fishery, Open Access in the South Coast (WA)
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Stock Structure

There are two species of Australian Salmon: Western Australian Salmon (Arripis truttaceus) and Eastern Australian Salmon (A. trutta). Each species represents a single biological stock1. The Western Australian Salmon biological stock is distributed from Kalbarri in Western Australia southwards to South Australia, Victoria and the west coast of Tasmania. The Eastern Australian Salmon biological stock is distributed from southern Queensland down the east coast of Australia to western Victoria and Tasmania. Both species have spawning areas that allow eggs and larvae to be dispersed by the prevailing currents—southwards and then eastwards by the Leeuwin Current (Western Australian Salmon) and southwards by the East Australian Current (Eastern Australian Salmon). The fish then grow and mature before moving back towards their spawning areas which occur at the northern (up-current) parts of their distributions.

Here, assessment of stock status is presented at the biological stock level—Western Australian and Eastern Australian.

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Stock Status

Western Australia

This cross-jurisdictional biological stock has components in Western Australia, South Australia and Victoria. Each jurisdiction assesses that part of the biological stock that occurs in its waters. The status presented here for the entire biological stock has been established using evidence from all jurisdictions.

In Western Australia, total commercial landings were relatively stable from the commencement of the fishery in the 1940s until approximately 2004. A sharp decline occurred between 2004 and 20112. Catches were at historically low levels from 2011–15. Since 2004, fishing effort has followed a similar downward trend, as a result of weak market demand and low wholesale prices (landings in Western Australia are mainly sold as bait). These catch and effort declines mainly reflect changes in the south coast fishery, where the majority of annual landings occur. Total commercial fishing effort directed towards Australian Salmon in Western Australia is currently very low compared with historical levels, and the reduction in effort accounts for most of the catch decline since 2004. Estimates of current fishing mortality are lower than estimates of natural mortality3. Since the breeding component of this stock resides exclusively in Western Australia, with only immature/non-breeding fish occurring in South Australia and Victoria, the above evidence indicates that the spawning biomass of the stock is unlikely to be recruitment overfished.

For the South Australian part of the biological stock, total commercial landings have declined markedly since the mid-1990s. However, commercial effort has declined similarly. The current commercial fishing effort directed towards Western Australian Salmon in South Australia is very low compared with historical levels, and although variable, catch rates have not decreased4. This evidence indicates that the current level of fishing pressure by the South Australian fishery is unlikely to cause the biological stock to become recruitment overfished.

For the Victorian part of the biological stock, total commercial landings are very low compared with those in other states and compared with the quantity of Eastern Australian Salmon landed in Victoria (9.6 tonnes [t] in 2015). The low commercial landings of this species relative to the catches taken by other jurisdictions indicate that the current level of fishing pressure by the Victorian fishery is low. The above evidence indicates that the current level of fishing pressure is unlikely to cause the stock to become recruitment overfished.

Very low levels of fishing effort are currently directed towards Western Australian Salmon across all jurisdictions. The above evidence indicates that the current level of fishing pressure across each jurisdiction is unlikely to cause the stock to become recruitment overfished.

On the basis of the evidence provided above, the Western Australian biological stock is classified as a sustainable stock.

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Biology

Biology
Species Longevity / Maximum Size Maturity (50 per cent)
AUSTRALIAN SALMONS Eastern Australian Salmon (Arripis trutta): 12 years; 810 mm FL  Western Australian Salmon (A. truttaceus): 12 years; 850 mm FL Eastern Australian Salmon: 2–4 years; 300–400 mm FL Western Australian Salmon: 3–5 years; 600–650 mm FL

Australian Salmon biology5,7

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Distributions

Distribution of reported commercial catch of Australian Salmon

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Tables

Fishing methods
Western Australia
Commercial
Various
Recreational
Hand Line, Hand Reel or Powered Reels
Management methods
Method Western Australia
Commercial
Gear restrictions
Limited entry
Spatial zoning
Vessel restrictions
Indigenous
Bag limits
Licence
Size limit
Recreational
Bag limits
Gear restrictions
Licence
Size limit
Spatial closures
Active vessels
Western Australia
9 in SCSMF, 5 in SWCBNF
SCSMF
South Coast Salmon Managed Fishery (WA)
SWCBNF
South West Coast Beach Net Fishery (Order) (WA)
Catch
Western Australia
Commercial 120.38t in SCSMF, 36.84t in WCBBFNMF, SWCSMF, WL (SC)
Indigenous Unknown
Recreational 6 t
SCSMF
South Coast Salmon Managed Fishery (WA)
WCBBFNMF, SWCSMF, WL (SC)
West Coast (Beach Bait Fish Net) Managed Fishery, South West Coast Salmon Managed Fishery, Open Access in the South Coast (WA)

Indigenous (management methods) a,b,c,d,e

a In Victoria, regulations for managing recreational fishing are also applied to fishing activities by Indigenous people. Recognised Traditional Owners (groups that hold native title or have agreements under the Traditional Owner Settlement Act 2010 [Vic]) are exempt (subject to conditions) from the requirement to hold a recreational fishing licence, and can apply for permits under the Fisheries Act 1995 (Vic) that authorise customary fishing (for example, different catch and size limits or equipment). The Indigenous category in Table 3 refers to customary fishing undertaken by recognised Traditional Owners. In 2015, there were no applications for customary fishing permits to access Australian Salmon.

b Aboriginal Cultural Fishing Interim Access Arrangement allows an Indigenous fisher in New South Wales to take in excess of a recreational bag limit in certain circumstances, for example, if they are doing so to provide fish to other community members who cannot harvest themselves.

c Aboriginal cultural fishing authority, the authority that Indigenous persons can apply to take catches outside the recreational limits under the Fisheries Management Act 1994 (NSW), Section 37 (1)(c1), Aboriginal cultural fishing authority.

d In Tasmania, a recreational licence is required for fishers using dropline or longline gear, along with nets, such as gillnet or beach seine.

e In Tasmania, aborigines engaged in aboriginal fishing activities in marine waters are exempt from holding recreational fishing licences, but must comply with all other fisheries rules as if they were licensed. Additionally, recreational bag and possession limits also apply. If using pots, rings, set lines or gillnets, Aborigines must obtain a unique identifying code (UIC). The policy document Recognition of Aboriginal Fishing Activities for issuing a Unique Identifying Code (UIC) to a person for Aboriginal Fishing activity explains the steps to take in making an application for a UIC.

f Subject to the defence that applies under Section 211 of the Native Title Act 1993 (Cth), and the exemption from a requirement to hold a Victorian recreational fishing licence, the non-commercial take by indigenous fishers is covered by the same arrangements as that for recreational fishing.

g Western Australia – Recreational (catch) Western Australian boat-based recreational catch from 1 May 2013–30 April 20148.

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Catch Chart

Commercial catch of Australian Salmon

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Effects of fishing on the marine environment

  • Except for gillnets, the fishing methods used to target Australian Salmon around Australia are highly selective and targeted. As a result, there is little bycatch in these fisheries2,5,11.
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Environmental effects on AUSTRALIAN SALMONS

  • The life cycles of Western and Eastern Australian Salmon are strongly linked to the prevailing currents throughout their distributions. The East Australian, Leeuwin and Capes Currents appear to influence the distribution of spawning, larval dispersal, the strength and distribution of juvenile recruitment, and the distribution of fishery landings2,12. Environmentally driven changes to these currents may affect recruitment and the distribution and abundance of both species.
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References

  1. 1 MacDonald, CM 1983, Population, taxonomic and evolutionary studies on marine fishes of the genus Arripis (Perciformes: Arripidae). Bulletin of Marine Science, 33(3): 780–780.
  2. 2 Smith K, Quinn A and Holtz M 2015, South coast nearshore and estuarine finfish resources status report. In WJ Fletcher and K Santoro (ed.s), Status reports of the fisheries and aquatic resources of Western Australia 2014–15: State of the fisheries, Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, Perth, pp 247–257.
  3. 3 Fletcher, WJ and Santoro, K (ed.s) unpublished, Status reports of the fisheries and aquatic resources of Western Australia 201516: State of the fisheries, Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, Perth.
  4. 4 Fowler, AJ, McGarvey, R, Steer, MA and Feenstra, JE 2015, The South Australian marine Scalefish Fishery—Fishery statistics for 1983–84 to 2014–15, Report to PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture, South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), SARDI Publication F2007/000565-10, SARDI Research Report Series 882, SARDI, Adelaide.
  5. 5 Stewart, J, Hughes, JM, McAllister, J, Lyle, J and MacDonald, M 2011, Australian salmon (Arripis trutta): population structure, reproduction, diet and composition of commercial and recreational catches, Fisheries Final Report Series 129, Industry and Investment New South Wales, Sydney.
  6. 6 Emery, TJ, Lyle, JM and Hartman, K 2016, Tasmanian Scalefish Fishery 2014–15, Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, Hobart.
  7. 7 Kailola, PM, Williams, MJ, Stewart, PC, Reichelt, RE, McNee, A and Grieve, C 1993, Australian fisheries resources, Bureau of Resource Sciences and the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra.
  8. 8 Ryan, KL, Hall, NG, Lai, EK, Smallwood, CB, Taylor, SM and Wise, BS 2015, State-wide survey of boat-based recreational fishing in Western Australia 2013–14. Fisheries research report no. 268, Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, Perth.
  9. 9 West, LD, Stark, KE, Murphy, JJ, Lyle, JM and Ochwada-Doyle, FA 2015, Survey of recreational fishing in New South Wales and the ACT, 2013–14, Fisheries Final Report Series 149, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Sydney.
  10. 10 Giri, K and Hall, K 2015, South Australian recreational fishing survey 2013–14. Fisheries Victoria internal report series no. 62, Victorian Government, Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources, Melbourne.
  11. 11 Lyle, JM, Bell, JD, Chuwen, BM, Barrett, N, Tracey, SR, and Buxton, CD 2014, Assessing the impacts of gillnetting in Tasmania: implications for by-catch and biodiversity, Fisheries Research and Development Corporation project 2010/016, Fisheries Research and Development Corporation and Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart.
  12. 12 Jones, GK and Westlake, M 2003, Australian salmon, herring, sand crab, tube worms and blood worms, Fishery assessment report to PIRSA for the Marine Scalefish Fishery Management Committee, South Australian Fisheries Assessment Series No. 2002/018.

Archived reports

Click the links below to view reports from other years for this fish.