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SILVER TREVALLIES (2018)

Pseudocaranx georgianus, Pseudocaranx sp. "dentex" & Pseudocaranx wrighti, Pseudocaranx dinjerra

  • Ashley Fowler (Department of Primary Industries, New South Wales)
  • Rowan Chick (Department of Primary Industries, New South Wales)
  • Bradley Moore (Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania)
  • David Fairclough (Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia)
  • Brent Womersley (Victorian Fisheries Authority)
  • Lee Georgeson (Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences)
  • Luke Albury (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Queensland)
  • Paul Rogers (South Australian Research and Development Institute)
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Summary

Silver Trevally inhabits estuarine and coastal waters throughout southern temperate Australia. Of the seven separate Australian stocks, five (in WA, SA, VIC, TAS and the Commonwealth) are sustainable. The NSW stock is depleting and the QLD stock is undefined.  

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Stock Status Overview

Stock status determination
Jurisdiction Stock Fisheries Stock status Indicators
Commonwealth Commonwealth SESSF (CTS) Sustainable Catch, CPUE
New South Wales New South Wales EGF, OHF, OTF, OTLF Depleting Catch, CPUE, length and age structures
Queensland Queensland CRFFF, ECIFFF, RRFFF Undefined Catch
South Australia South Australia MSF Sustainable Catch, effort, CPUE
Tasmania Tasmania SF Sustainable Catch, effort
Victoria Victoria CIF, GLF, OF, OPSF, PPBWPF, ITF Sustainable Catch, effort, CPUE
Western Australia Western Australia PLF, SBBSMNMF, SCEMF, WCDSIMF, WL (SC) Sustainable Catch, CPUE
CIF
Corner Inlet Fishery (VIC)
CRFFF
Coral Reef Fin Fish Fishery (QLD)
ECIFFF
East Coast Inshore Fin Fish Fishery (QLD)
EGF
Estuary General Fishery (NSW)
GLF
Gippsland Lakes Fishery (VIC)
ITF
Inshore Trawl Fishery (VIC)
MSF
Marine Scalefish Fishery (SA)
OF
Ocean Fishery (VIC)
OHF
Ocean Hauling Fishery (NSW)
OPSF
Ocean Purse Seine Fishery (VIC)
OTF
Ocean Trawl Fishery (NSW)
OTLF
Ocean Trap and Line Fishery (NSW)
PLF
Pilbara Line Fishery (WA)
PPBWPF
Port Phillip Bay and Western Port Bay Fishery (VIC)
RRFFF
Rocky Reef Fin Fish Fishery (QLD)
SBBSMNMF
Shark Bay Beach Seine and Mesh Net Managed Fishery (WA)
SCEMF
South Coast Estuarine Managed Fishery (WA)
SESSF (CTS)
Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery (Commonwealth Trawl Sector) (CTH)
SF
Scalefish Fishery (TAS)
WCDSIMF
West Coast Demersal Scalefish (Interim) Managed Fishery (WA)
WL (SC)
Open Access in the South Coast (WA)
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Stock Structure

Silver Trevallies comprises a complex of species that inhabits estuarine and coastal waters (depths of 10–230 m) throughout southern temperate Australia, from southern Queensland, south through New South Wales, Tasmania, Victoria, South Australia and southern and central Western Australia [Smith-Vaniz and Jelks 2006].

The biological stock structure of Silver Trevallies is uncertain. Fisheries are based on a species complex that varies by region, with Pseudocaranx georgianus present in all jurisdictions except Queensland, P. wrighti present in all jurisdictions except Queensland and New South Wales, P. dinjerra only present in Western Australia, and P. sp. ‘dentex’ only present in Queensland [Smith-Vaniz and Jelks 2006, Gomon et al. 2008]. There have been no investigations of potential genetic structure within these species. Investigations of population connectivity and post-settlement movement are also limited. Despite fast swimming ability, tag-recapture studies in Western Australia, New South Wales and New Zealand indicate restricted post-settlement movement of P. georgianus, potentially leading to ecological stock structuring over moderate (hundreds of kilometres) spatial scales [James 1980, Fairclough et al. 2011, Fowler et al. 2018].

Here, assessment of stock status is presented at the jurisdictional level—Commonwealth, Western Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia.

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Stock Status

Commonwealth

Catch in the Commonwealth Trawl and Scalefish Hook sectors (assumed to be P. georgianus) was 55 tonnes (t) in 2017–18. All of the catch in 2017–18 was taken in the trawl sector.

A tier 4 (catch per unit effort [CPUE]) assessment was undertaken in 2017 [Haddon and Sporcic 2017]. The assessment used the reference period 1992–2001 and excluded data from historical catches taken within the Batemans Marine Park. The assessment shows a rapid decline in CPUE from 1990, to be near the limit reference point of 20 per cent of unfished biomass by 2000. The CPUE then increased to 2010, when it was above the target, but has since declined and appears relatively flat and stable between the limit and the target [Haddon and Sporcic 2017]. The assessment produced a one year recommended biological catch (RBC) of 445 t. There is no truncation in port-based or onboard-based catch length frequency data evident in recent Commonwealth catches [Thomson et al. 2016]. Since 1991, when reliable records begin, catches have been well below the RBCs produced by the 2013 and 2017 assessments, and below the recent TACs (which are based on the 2013 assessment). For the 2017–18 fishing season a TAC of 613 t was set.

The above evidence indicates that the stock is unlikely to be depleted and the current level of fishing pressure is unlikely to cause the stock to become recruitment impaired. Despite this evidence, it needs to be acknowledged that the Commonwealth stock may form part of the same biological stock as the New South Wales stock. Given that the New South Wales stock is classified as depleting, based on estimates of total fishing mortality exceeding natural mortality, and the ongoing truncation in age and length classes, the ability to determine status classification for Silver Trevallies in the Commonwealth is increasingly uncertain and may change in future depending on the outcomes of stock structure studies and revised assessments. Currently, in the absence of evidence for the Commonwealth stock to suggest otherwise, Silver Trevallies in the Commonwealth is classified as a sustainable stock.

On the basis of the evidence provided above, Silver Trevallies in the Commonwealth is classified as a sustainable stock.

New South Wales

Silver Trevallies (P. georgianus) stocks supported historical commercial catches in excess of 1 000 t per year in New South Wales during the 1980s, but the commercial catch has declined steadily since that time to 60 t in 2017; the lowest level in the history of the fishery. Interpreting this decline is complicated by changes in the historical reporting of catch between the state and Commonwealth jurisdictions, as well as management changes within New South Wales that have affected the spatial distribution of effort and fishery reporting through time. Within the state, reduction in the area available to commercial fisheries for Silver Trevallies, through the implementation of recreational fishing havens and marine parks (particularly the Batemans Marine Park), has likely reduced catch and potentially influenced catch rates, thereby creating difficulties in defining useful reference points to assess current stock status. A minimum legal length (MLL) of 300 mm TL was also introduced in late 2007, further impacting the quantity of landed catch and potentially confounding the interpretation of trends in fishery-dependent indicators through time.

Standardised catch rates (kg per day, hereafter ‘catch rates’) in New South Wales have either declined, or shown no clear trend, depending on the area and fishing method considered. The analysed period (1998–2017) is also characterised by declining effort across the state. Catch rates for fish trawling and fish trapping have declined since the late 1990s to early 2000s in the two ocean areas accounting for the greatest catch. Recent (2015–2017) catch rates for fish trapping in one of these areas have declined to 20 per cent of those achieved during 1998–2001. Declining catch rates for fish trawling in both areas during the most recent reporting year (2016–17) have brought catch rates to their lowest level since the introduction of the MLL in 2007. However, catch rates for fish trawling in other areas have shown no clear trend since the early 1990s, with annual estimates since 2009–10 surrounded by considerable uncertainty. The lack of a suitable reference period from which to evaluate changes in biomass (or a proxy) creates substantial uncertainty and will continue to hinder detection of biomass reductions to levels that might impair recruitment in New South Wales.

While acknowledging difficulties in interpreting the change, retained landings by resident recreational fishers in New South Wales have decreased substantially, with estimated landings declining from approximately 140 000 fish during 2000–01 to around 49 000 individuals during 2013–14 [West et al. 2015]. This corresponds to a decrease in retained catch weight from approximately 100 t during 2000–01 to around 27 t during 2013–14, based on average body weight. Mean catch rate (fish per day) of recreational fishers, not including charter boats, also declined from 0.05 to 0.03 between the two periods [West et al. 2015]. Due to the lack of certainty in defining the level of biomass depletion and despite substantial declines in commercial and recreational catch and CPUE since the late-1990s, the stock is not yet considered to be recruitment impaired, although caution must be applied to this outcome. This conclusion is also driven by a lack of certainty regarding stock boundaries, with some component of the stock likely shared with the neighbouring Commonwealth jurisdiction, which classified the resource as ‘sustainable’ given available evidence from that area.

Observer studies and monitoring of landed catches have shown that the length of Silver Trevallies captured by the OTF declined substantially between the periods 1987–90, 1993–95 and 1997–99 [Liggins 1996, Rowling and Raines 2000]. The proportion of larger-sized Silver Trevallies landed by New South Wales fisheries has continued to decline since 2007, when the MLL was introduced [Stewart et al. 2015].

As a result of declines in catch and proportion of larger fish, Silver Trevallies were last assessed as being growth overfished in New South Wales, with yield from the stock being limited by harvesting them at too small a length and at an excessive rate [Stewart et al. 2015]. The only age-based assessment of the Silver Trevallies stock indicated that total mortality increased substantially between 1987–90 and 1997–99 [Rowling and Raines 2000]. These analyses estimated that fishing mortality was greater than natural mortality by the 1997–99 period and that the fishery exhibited age class truncation. Given the ongoing length truncation observed in the fishery, it is likely that the total mortality rate and degree of age class truncation have persisted. Due to the MLL in New South Wales waters, discarding in the OTF is substantial and may exceed 50 per cent at times, based on number of individuals [NSW DPI, unpublished data]. Discard mortality of Silver Trevallies taken by trawling is likely to be substantial and possible mortality from discarding remains a concern to the status of the stock. Some protection to the Silver Trevallies stock is afforded by marine parks in eastern Australia, but total fishing mortality is still likely higher than natural mortality. The above evidence indicates that the current level of fishing mortality is likely to cause the stock to become recruitment impaired.

On the basis of the evidence provided above, Silver Trevallies in New South Wales is classified as a depleting stock.

Queensland

Catch and effort data for Silver Trevallies (P. sp. ‘dentex’) in Queensland are poor. Commercial and charter catches of Silver Trevallies are not reported specifically, and the species is included as part of a broader ‘Trevally-unspecified’ category. Although species identification may be uncertain, Silver Trevallies is reported specifically in recreational fishing surveys and in 2013–14 approximately 2000 fish were landed [Webley et al. 2015]. It is unlikely that the combined commercial and recreational catches exceeded 10 t in 2017. Silver Trevallies are not subject to size restrictions, although a combined recreational possession limit of 20 applies to members of the Carangidae family. There is insufficient information available to confidently classify the status of the stock.

On the basis of the evidence provided above, Silver Trevallies in Queensland is classified as an undefined stock.

South Australia

In South Australia, Silver Trevallies (P. georgianus) is considered a tertiary species within South Australia's commercial multispecies, multi-gear and multi-sectoral Marine Scalefish Fishery. It is also taken in the charter [Rogers et al. 2017], and recreational [Giri and Hall 2015] sectors of South Australian State-managed fisheries. The primary measures for biomass and fishing mortality are commercial catch, effort and handline CPUE; the most recent assessment was for the period to December 2017 [Steer et al. 2018].

Historical annual commercial catches of Silver Trevallies in South Australia have been highly variable, ranging from 2.1 t in 1985 to 21 t in 2000 [Steer et al. 2018]. Recent commercial catches have been at moderate levels, with an average annual catch of 9.8 t over the past 10 years, and 10.5 t landed in 2017. Catch rate for the commercial sector has been stable, at moderate levels since the early 2000s. Handline CPUE was 15. 1 kg.fisher day-1 in 2017, which was the highest catch rate since 2010. The state-wide recreational catch was estimated at approximately 14.57 t in 2013–14 [Giri and Hall 2015]. There is no information available on the catch of Silver Trevallies by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in South Australian waters. The above evidence indicates that the biomass of this stock is unlikely to be depleted and that recruitment is unlikely to be impaired. Furthermore, the above evidence indicates that the current level of fishing mortality is unlikely to cause the stock to become recruitment impaired.

On the basis of the evidence presented above, Silver Trevallies in South Australia is classified as a sustainable stock.

Tasmania

In Tasmanian waters, Silver Trevallies is a byproduct species of the Tasmanian Scalefish Fishery, caught predominately using gillnet and beach seine gears. Historical commercial catches have been low, with an average annual landed catch of 3.6 t over the past five years, and 3.2 t landed in 2016–17. These catch estimates are slightly lower than recent estimates of Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) based on catch-only estimation methods [Haddon and Punt 2018], which, based on commercial catch data for the period 1990–91 to 2016–17, estimate in State waters to be just over 6 t. Effort has fluctuated through time as the species is not actively targeted, so catch rates are not considered to provide a reliable index of relative abundance. Estimated recreational catch using line and gillnet methods was also low at 1.9 t in 2012–13 [Lyle et al. 2014]. Given the low levels of commercial and recreational catch and effort in Tasmania, the biomass of this stock is unlikely to be depleted and recruitment is unlikely to be impaired. Furthermore, the above evidence indicates that the current level of fishing mortality is unlikely to cause the stock to become recruitment impaired.

On the basis of the evidence provided above, Silver Trevallies in Tasmania is classified as a sustainable stock.

Victoria

In Victoria, haul seines predominantly accounted for 99 per cent of Silver Trevallies caught in the Gippsland Lakes Fishery (GLF), 78 per cent in the Corner Inlet Fishery (CIF) and 99 per cent in the Port Phillip Bay and Western Port Fishery (PPBWPF) [Conron 2016a, Conron 2016b]. They were also caught by trawl in the Ocean Fishery (OF). Since 2000, total commercial catch ranged from 22 t to 84 t. During 2017, 55 t was landed with 58 per cent and 23 per cent taken from CIF and GLF respectively.

For the CIF, Silver Trevallies catch declined from 46 t in 2001 to 13 t in 2015 and then increased to 32.4 t in 2017. Average catch rates using haul seine are highly variable [Conron et al 2016b] ranging from around 5–22 kg per shot (individual haul) with catch rates showing an increasing trend since 2015 [VFA unpublished data]. Catch rate in 2017 was 12.8 kg per shot which is above the long-term average catch [VFA unpublished data]. For the GLF, Silver Trevallies catch declined from 29 t in 2005 to 3.6 t in 2014. Catch in 2017 was 12.8 t which was more than twice the catch attained in the previous five years [VFA unpublished data]. Catch rates have historically been highly variable but in recent years have declined from 93 kg per shot (2005) to a historic low of 4.9 kg per shot (2008); however, catch rates have increased to 58 kg per shot in 2017 [VFA unpublished data]. Commercial netting is being phased out in Port Phillip Bay. Since 2016, 34 of the 43 licenses have been bought out by the Victorian government. This has significantly reduced commercial effort for Silver Trevallies. Commercial catch of 6.4 t in 2016 was reduced to 2.5 t in 2017 in Port Phillip Bay and Western Port. Commercial net fishing in Port Phillip Bay will cease by 2022 and has already ceased in Corio Bay.

Silver Trevallies are also a target species for recreational fishers in Victoria, where they are commonly taken from the shore and from boats; however, there are no estimates of the current recreational catch [Conron et al 2016a].

On the basis of the evidence provided above, Silver Trevallies in Victoria is classified as a sustainable stock.

Western Australia

Commercial catches of Silver Trevallies (likely to be mostly P. georgianus) in Western Australia have remained low (2–12 t) between 2008 and 2017 and catch rates have remained steady at 1–2 kg per fishing day. Most of the catch is landed as byproduct by commercial line fisheries, including the West Coast Demersal Scalefish (Interim) Managed Fishery and open access fishing in the South Coast Bioregion (east of longitude 115°30'E), which focus effort on other demersal species, such as West Australian Dhufish and Snapper. Management regulation of effort in the former fishery limits fishing pressure and catches of Silver Trevallies (along with state-wide recreational regulations such as a minimum legal length and bag limit) [Gaughan and Santoro, 2018]. The open access fishery on the south coast is undergoing review to progress it to formal management.

Recreational sector (private boat-based recreational fishers and tour operators) retained catches of Silver Trevallies in Western Australia decreased from ~35 t in 2011–12 to ~19 t and 18 t in 2013–14 and 2015–16, reflecting an overall decrease in effort [Ryan et al. 2017]. The majority of the catch of Silver Trevallies (86 per cent in 2015–16) is taken by boat-based fishers in the West Coast Bioregion (WCB), who primarily target demersal species like West Australian Dhufish and Snapper. Such demersal species are currently in recovery, after revision of management regulations between 2008 and 2010, which limit effort and thus catch of species typically caught on boats, possibly including Silver Trevallies [Fairclough et al. 2018]. The above evidence indicates that the biomass of this stock is unlikely to be depleted and that recruitment is unlikely to be impaired. In addition, the above evidence indicates that the current level of fishing mortality is unlikely to cause the stock to become recruitment impaired.

On the basis of the evidence provided above, Silver Trevallies in Western Australia is classified as a sustainable stock.

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Biology

Silver Trevallies biology [Rowling and Raines 2000]

Biology
Species Longevity / Maximum Size Maturity (50 per cent)
Silver Trevally 13–18 years, 690–938 mm TL 190–200 mm TL 
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Distributions

Distribution of reported commercial catch of Silver Trevallies

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Tables

Fishing methods
Commonwealth Western Australia Queensland New South Wales Victoria Tasmania South Australia
Commercial
Hand Line, Hand Reel or Powered Reels
Hook and Line
Dropline
Trolling
Gillnet
Beach Seine
Unspecified
Net
Mesh Net
Haul Seine
Otter Trawl
Fish Trap
Demersal Longline
Seine Nets
Danish Seine
Charter
Spearfishing
Hook and Line
Recreational
Spearfishing
Hook and Line
Gillnet
Beach Seine
Indigenous
Hook and Line
Spearfishing
Gillnet
Beach Seine
Management methods
Method Commonwealth Western Australia Queensland New South Wales Victoria Tasmania South Australia
Charter
Bag limits
Fishing gear and method restrictions
Licence
Limited entry
Marine park closures
Passenger restrictions
Possession limit
Size limit
Spatial closures
Spatial zoning
Commercial
Fishing gear and method restrictions
Gear restrictions
Limited entry
Size limit
Spatial closures
Spatial restrictions
Total allowable catch
Indigenous
Bag limits
Customary fishing permits
Fishing gear and method restrictions
Native Title
Possession limit
Section 37 (1d)(3)(9), Aboriginal cultural fishing authority
Size limit
Recreational
Bag limits
Fishing gear and method restrictions
Licence
Licence (boat-based sector)
Marine park closures
Possession limit
Size limit
Spatial closures
Active vessels
Commonwealth Western Australia Queensland New South Wales Victoria Tasmania South Australia
26 in SESSF (CTS) 31 in Charter, <3 in PLF, <3 in SBBSMNMF, 9 in SCEMF, 12 in WCDSIMF, 9 in WL (SC) 129 in CRFFF || ECIFFF || RRFFF, 0 in GOCDFFTF, 0 in GOCIFFF, 1 in GOCLF 106 in EGF, 15 in OHF, 24 in OTF, 108 in OTLF 17 in CIF, 10 in GLF, 6 in ITF, 7 in OF, 1 in OPSF, 5 in PPBWPF 15 in SF 63 in MSF
Charter
Tour Operator (WA)
CIF
Corner Inlet Fishery (VIC)
CRFFF || ECIFFF || RRFFF
Coral Reef Fin Fish Fishery, East Coast Inshore Fin Fish Fishery, Rocky Reef Fin Fish Fishery (QLD)
EGF
Estuary General Fishery (NSW)
GLF
Gippsland Lakes Fishery (VIC)
GOCDFFTF
Gulf of Carpentaria Developmental Fin Fish Trawl Fishery (QLD)
GOCIFFF
Gulf of Carpentaria Inshore Fin Fish Fishery (QLD)
GOCLF
Gulf of Carpentaria Line Fishery (QLD)
ITF
Inshore Trawl Fishery (VIC)
MSF
Marine Scalefish Fishery (SA)
OF
Ocean Fishery (VIC)
OHF
Ocean Hauling Fishery (NSW)
OPSF
Ocean Purse Seine Fishery (VIC)
OTF
Ocean Trawl Fishery (NSW)
OTLF
Ocean Trap and Line Fishery (NSW)
PLF
Pilbara Line Fishery (WA)
PPBWPF
Port Phillip Bay and Western Port Bay Fishery (VIC)
SBBSMNMF
Shark Bay Beach Seine and Mesh Net Managed Fishery (WA)
SCEMF
South Coast Estuarine Managed Fishery (WA)
SESSF (CTS)
Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery (Commonwealth Trawl Sector) (CTH)
SF
Scalefish Fishery (TAS)
WCDSIMF
West Coast Demersal Scalefish (Interim) Managed Fishery (WA)
WL (SC)
Open Access in the South Coast (WA)
Catch
Commonwealth Western Australia Queensland New South Wales Victoria Tasmania South Australia
Commercial 51.75t in SESSF (CTS) 2.32t in PLF, SBBSMNMF, SCEMF, WCDSIMF, WL (SC) 4.62t in EGF, 291.00kg in OHF, 34.99t in OTF, 12.32t in OTLF 32.44t in CIF, 12.82t in GLF, 114.70kg in ITF, 7.15t in OF, 2.53t in PPBWPF 3.25t in SF 21.00t in MSF
Charter 1t Unknown
Indigenous Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown (No catch under permit) Unknown Unknown
Recreational Unknown 17 t (± 2 se) (in 2015–16) ~2 t 27 t (2013–14) 37 t (2003) 1.9 t (in 2012–13) 14.57 t (in 2013–14)
CIF
Corner Inlet Fishery (VIC)
EGF
Estuary General Fishery (NSW)
GLF
Gippsland Lakes Fishery (VIC)
ITF
Inshore Trawl Fishery (VIC)
MSF
Marine Scalefish Fishery (SA)
OF
Ocean Fishery (VIC)
OHF
Ocean Hauling Fishery (NSW)
OTF
Ocean Trawl Fishery (NSW)
OTLF
Ocean Trap and Line Fishery (NSW)
PLF
Pilbara Line Fishery (WA)
PPBWPF
Port Phillip Bay and Western Port Bay Fishery (VIC)
SBBSMNMF
Shark Bay Beach Seine and Mesh Net Managed Fishery (WA)
SCEMF
South Coast Estuarine Managed Fishery (WA)
SESSF (CTS)
Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery (Commonwealth Trawl Sector) (CTH)
SF
Scalefish Fishery (TAS)
WCDSIMF
West Coast Demersal Scalefish (Interim) Managed Fishery (WA)
WL (SC)
Open Access in the South Coast (WA)

Commonwealth – Recreational The Australian Government does not manage recreational fishing in Commonwealth waters. Recreational fishing in Commonwealth waters is managed by the state or territory immediately adjacent to those waters, under its management regulations. Commonwealth – Indigenous The Australian Government does not manage non-commercial Indigenous fishing in Commonwealth waters, with the exception of the Torres Strait. In general, non-commercial Indigenous fishing in Commonwealth waters is managed by the state or territory immediately adjacent to those waters. Western Australia – Recreational (management methods) In Western Australia, a licence is required to recreationally fish from a powered vessel.

Western Australia – Recreational (Catch) Shore based catches are unknown, thus landings would be underestimated.

Queensland – Indigenous (management methods) In Queensland, under the Fisheries Act 1994 (Qld), Indigenous fishers are able to use prescribed traditional and non-commercial fishing apparatus in waters open to fishing. Size and possession limits, and seasonal closures do not apply to Indigenous fishers. Further exemptions to fishery regulations may be applied for through permits.

New South Wales – Indigenous (a) The Aboriginal Cultural Fishing Interim Access Arrangement allows an Indigenous fisher in New South Wales to take in excess of a recreational bag limit in certain circumstances—for example, if they are doing so to provide fish to other community members who cannot harvest themselves; (b) The Aboriginal cultural fishing authority is the authority that Indigenous persons can apply to take catches outside the recreational limits under the Fisheries Management Act 1994 (NSW), Section 37 (1d)(3)(9), Aboriginal cultural fishing authority; and (c) In cases where the Native Title Act 1993 (Cth) applies fishing activity can be undertaken by the person holding native title in line with S.211 of that Act, which provides for fishing activities for the purpose of satisfying their personal, domestic or non-commercial communal needs. In managing the resource where native title has been formally recognised, the native title holders are engaged with to ensure their native title rights are respected and inform management of the State's fisheries resources.

Victoria – Indigenous

In Victoria, regulations for managing recreational fishing may not apply to fishing activities by Indigenous people. Victorian traditional owners may have rights under the Commonwealth's Native Title Act 1993 to hunt, fish, gather and conduct other cultural activities for their personal, domestic or non-commercial communal needs without the need to obtain a licence. Traditional Owners that have agreements under the Traditional Owner Settlement Act 2010 (Vic) may also be authorised to fish without the requirement to hold a recreational fishing licence. Outside of these arrangements, Indigenous Victorians can apply for permits under the Fisheries Act 1995 (Vic) that authorise fishing for specific indigenous cultural ceremonies or events (for example, different catch and size limits or equipment). There were no Indigenous permits granted in 2017 and hence no Indigenous catch recorded.

Tasmania – Recreational (management methods) In Tasmania, a recreational licence is required for fishers using dropline or longline gear, along with nets, such as gillnet or beach seine. The species is subject to a minimum size of 20 cm in Tasmanian waters. A bag limit of 10 individuals and a possession limit of 20 individuals is in place for recreational fishers.

Tasmania – Indigenous (management methods) In Tasmania, Indigenous persons engaged in aboriginal fishing activities in marine waters are exempt from holding recreational fishing licences, but must comply with all other fisheries rules as if they were licensed. Additionally, recreational bag and possession limits also apply. If using pots, rings, set lines or gillnets, Indigenous fishers must obtain a unique identifying code (UIC). The policy document Recognition of Aboriginal Fishing Activities for issuing a UIC to a person for Aboriginal Fishing activity explains the steps to take in making an application for a UIC.

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Catch Chart

Commercial catch of Silver Trevallies - note confidential catch not shown

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References

  1. Conron, S, Giri, K, Hamer, P and Hall, K 2016, Gippsland Lakes Fishery Assessment 2016, Fisheries Victoria Science Report Series No. 14. The Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources, Melbourne.
  2. Conron, S, Green, C, Hamer, P, Giri, K and Hall, K 2016, Corner Inlet- Nooramunga Fishery Assessment 2016, Fisheries Victoria Science Report Series No. 11. The Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources, Melbourne.
  3. Fairclough, D, Walters, S, Holtz, M 2018, West Coast Demersal Scalefish Resource Status Report 2017. In Status reports of the fisheries and aquatic resources of Western Australia 2016/17: The state of the fisheries, eds DJ Gaughan and K Santoro. Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia, pp. 60–65.
  4. Fairclough, DV, Potter, IC, Lek, E, Bivoltsis, AK and Babcock, RC 2011, The fish communities and main fish populations of the Jurien Bay Marine Park, Centre for Fish and Fisheries Research, Murdoch University, Perth.
  5. Fowler, AM, Chick, RC, Stewart, J 2018, Patterns and drivers of movement for a coastal benthopelagic fish, Pseudocaranx georgianus, on Australia’s southeast coast. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 16738.
  6. Gaughan, DJ and Santoro, K (eds.) 2018, Status Reports of the Fisheries and Aquatic Resources of Western Australia 2016/17: The State of the Fisheries. Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia, Perth, Australia. 237p.
  7. Giri, K and Hall, K 2015, South Australian Recreational Fishing Survey. Fisheries Victoria Internal Report Series No. 62. 75 pp.
  8. Gomon, MF, Bray, DJ and Kuiter, RH (Eds.) 2008, Fishes of Australia's Southern Coast, Reed New Holland, Sydney.
  9. Haddon, M 2013, Tier 4 analyses in the SESSF, including deep water species: data from 1986–2012. CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart.
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  12. James, GD 1980, Tagging experiments on trawl-caught trevally, Caranx georgianus, off north-east New Zealand, 1973–79, New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 14:249–254.
  13. Liggins, GW 1996, The interaction between fish trawling (in NSW) and other commercial and recreational fisheries, Final Report to Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, FRDC Project No. 92/79, NSW Fisheries Research Institute, Cronulla.
  14. Lyle, JM, Stark, KE and Tracey, SR 2014, 2012–13 survey of recreational fishing in Tasmania. IMAS, Hobart.
  15. Morison AK, Knuckey IA, Simpfendorfer CA and Buckworth RC 2013, South East Scalefish and Shark Fishery: draft 2012 stock assessment summaries for species assessed by GABRAG, ShelfRAG and Slope/DeepRAG. Report for AFMA, Canberra.
  16. Rogers, P.J, Tsolos, A, Boyle, M and Steer, M 2017, Data summary South Australian Charter Boat Fishery. Final Report to PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture. 25 pp.
  17. Rowling, KR and Raines, LP 2000, Description of the biology and an assessment of the fishery for silver trevally Pseudocaranx dentex off New South Wales, Final Report to Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, Project 97/125, NSW Fisheries Final Report Series No. 24, NSW Fisheries, Cronulla.
  18. Ryan, KL, Hall, NG, Lai, EK, Smallwood, CB, Taylor, SM and Wise, BS 2017, Statewide survey of boat-based recreational fishing in Western Australia 2015/16, Fisheries Research Report No. 287. Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia.
  19. ShelfRAG 2013, Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery Shelf Resource Assessment Group (ShelfRAG), minutes, 25–27 September 2013, Tasmania. ShelfRAG, Australian Fisheries Management Authority, Canberra.
  20. Smith-Vaniz, WF and Jelks, HL 2006, Australian trevallies of the genus Pseudocaranx (Teleostei: Carangidae), with description of a new species from Western Australia, Memoirs of Museum Victoria, 63:97–106.
  21. Steer, MA, Fowler, A J, McGarvey, R, Feenstra, J, Westlake, EJ, Matthews, D, Drew, M, Rogers, PJ and Earl, J 2018, Assessment of the South Australian Marine Scalefish Fishery in 2016. SARDI Research Report Series. SARDI Publication No. F2017/000427-1. 250 pp.
  22. Stewart, J, Hegarty, A, Young, C, Fowler, AM and Craig, J 2015, Status of Fisheries Resources in NSW 2013-14, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Mosman.
  23. Thomson, R, Fuller, M, Deng, R and Althaus, F 2016, Data summary for the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery: Logbook, Landings and Observer Data to 2015 (DRAFT).
  24. Webley, J, McInnes, K, Teixeira, D, Lawson, A and Quinn, R 2015, Statewide Recreational Fishing Survey 2013-14. Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Brisbane.
  25. West, LD, Stark, KE, Murphy, JJ, Lyle, JM and Ochwada-Doyle, FA 2015, Survey of recreational fishing in New South Wales and the ACT, 2013/14, Fisheries Final Report Series, No. 149, NSW Department of Primary Industries.

Archived reports

Click the links below to view reports from other years for this fish.