SILVER TREVALLIES (2018)
Pseudocaranx georgianus, Pseudocaranx sp. "dentex" & Pseudocaranx wrighti, Pseudocaranx dinjerra
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Silver Trevally inhabits estuarine and coastal waters throughout southern temperate Australia. Of the seven separate Australian stocks, five (in WA, SA, VIC, TAS and the Commonwealth) are sustainable. The NSW stock is depleting and the QLD stock is undefined.
Stock Status Overview
- Scalefish Fishery (TAS)
Silver Trevallies comprises a complex of species that inhabits estuarine and coastal waters (depths of 10–230 m) throughout southern temperate Australia, from southern Queensland, south through New South Wales, Tasmania, Victoria, South Australia and southern and central Western Australia [Smith-Vaniz and Jelks 2006].
The biological stock structure of Silver Trevallies is uncertain. Fisheries are based on a species complex that varies by region, with Pseudocaranx georgianus present in all jurisdictions except Queensland, P. wrighti present in all jurisdictions except Queensland and New South Wales, P. dinjerra only present in Western Australia, and P. sp. ‘dentex’ only present in Queensland [Smith-Vaniz and Jelks 2006, Gomon et al. 2008]. There have been no investigations of potential genetic structure within these species. Investigations of population connectivity and post-settlement movement are also limited. Despite fast swimming ability, tag-recapture studies in Western Australia, New South Wales and New Zealand indicate restricted post-settlement movement of P. georgianus, potentially leading to ecological stock structuring over moderate (hundreds of kilometres) spatial scales [James 1980, Fairclough et al. 2011, Fowler et al. 2018].
Here, assessment of stock status is presented at the jurisdictional level—Commonwealth, Western Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia.
In Tasmanian waters, Silver Trevallies is a byproduct species of the Tasmanian Scalefish Fishery, caught predominately using gillnet and beach seine gears. Historical commercial catches have been low, with an average annual landed catch of 3.6 t over the past five years, and 3.2 t landed in 2016–17. These catch estimates are slightly lower than recent estimates of Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) based on catch-only estimation methods [Haddon and Punt 2018], which, based on commercial catch data for the period 1990–91 to 2016–17, estimate in State waters to be just over 6 t. Effort has fluctuated through time as the species is not actively targeted, so catch rates are not considered to provide a reliable index of relative abundance. Estimated recreational catch using line and gillnet methods was also low at 1.9 t in 2012–13 [Lyle et al. 2014]. Given the low levels of commercial and recreational catch and effort in Tasmania, the biomass of this stock is unlikely to be depleted and recruitment is unlikely to be impaired. Furthermore, the above evidence indicates that the current level of fishing mortality is unlikely to cause the stock to become recruitment impaired.
On the basis of the evidence provided above, Silver Trevallies in Tasmania is classified as a sustainable stock.
Silver Trevallies biology [Rowling and Raines 2000]
|Species||Longevity / Maximum Size||Maturity (50 per cent)|
|Silver Trevally||13–18 years, 690–938 mm TL||190–200 mm TL|
Distribution of reported commercial catch of Silver Trevallies
|Hook and Line|
|Hook and Line|
|Fishing gear and method restrictions|
|15 in SF|
- Scalefish Fishery (TAS)
|Commercial||3.25t in SF|
|Recreational||1.9 t (in 2012–13)|
- Scalefish Fishery (TAS)
Commonwealth – Recreational The Australian Government does not manage recreational fishing in Commonwealth waters. Recreational fishing in Commonwealth waters is managed by the state or territory immediately adjacent to those waters, under its management regulations. Commonwealth – Indigenous The Australian Government does not manage non-commercial Indigenous fishing in Commonwealth waters, with the exception of the Torres Strait. In general, non-commercial Indigenous fishing in Commonwealth waters is managed by the state or territory immediately adjacent to those waters. Western Australia – Recreational (management methods) In Western Australia, a licence is required to recreationally fish from a powered vessel.
Western Australia – Recreational (Catch) Shore based catches are unknown, thus landings would be underestimated.
Queensland – Indigenous (management methods) In Queensland, under the Fisheries Act 1994 (Qld), Indigenous fishers are able to use prescribed traditional and non-commercial fishing apparatus in waters open to fishing. Size and possession limits, and seasonal closures do not apply to Indigenous fishers. Further exemptions to fishery regulations may be applied for through permits.
New South Wales – Indigenous (a) The Aboriginal Cultural Fishing Interim Access Arrangement allows an Indigenous fisher in New South Wales to take in excess of a recreational bag limit in certain circumstances—for example, if they are doing so to provide fish to other community members who cannot harvest themselves; (b) The Aboriginal cultural fishing authority is the authority that Indigenous persons can apply to take catches outside the recreational limits under the Fisheries Management Act 1994 (NSW), Section 37 (1d)(3)(9), Aboriginal cultural fishing authority; and (c) In cases where the Native Title Act 1993 (Cth) applies fishing activity can be undertaken by the person holding native title in line with S.211 of that Act, which provides for fishing activities for the purpose of satisfying their personal, domestic or non-commercial communal needs. In managing the resource where native title has been formally recognised, the native title holders are engaged with to ensure their native title rights are respected and inform management of the State's fisheries resources.
Victoria – Indigenous
In Victoria, regulations for managing recreational fishing may not apply to fishing activities by Indigenous people. Victorian traditional owners may have rights under the Commonwealth's Native Title Act 1993 to hunt, fish, gather and conduct other cultural activities for their personal, domestic or non-commercial communal needs without the need to obtain a licence. Traditional Owners that have agreements under the Traditional Owner Settlement Act 2010 (Vic) may also be authorised to fish without the requirement to hold a recreational fishing licence. Outside of these arrangements, Indigenous Victorians can apply for permits under the Fisheries Act 1995 (Vic) that authorise fishing for specific indigenous cultural ceremonies or events (for example, different catch and size limits or equipment). There were no Indigenous permits granted in 2017 and hence no Indigenous catch recorded.
Tasmania – Recreational (management methods) In Tasmania, a recreational licence is required for fishers using dropline or longline gear, along with nets, such as gillnet or beach seine. The species is subject to a minimum size of 20 cm in Tasmanian waters. A bag limit of 10 individuals and a possession limit of 20 individuals is in place for recreational fishers.
Tasmania – Indigenous (management methods) In Tasmania, Indigenous persons engaged in aboriginal fishing activities in marine waters are exempt from holding recreational fishing licences, but must comply with all other fisheries rules as if they were licensed. Additionally, recreational bag and possession limits also apply. If using pots, rings, set lines or gillnets, Indigenous fishers must obtain a unique identifying code (UIC). The policy document Recognition of Aboriginal Fishing Activities for issuing a UIC to a person for Aboriginal Fishing activity explains the steps to take in making an application for a UIC.
Commercial catch of Silver Trevallies - note confidential catch not shown
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- Fairclough, D, Walters, S, Holtz, M 2018, West Coast Demersal Scalefish Resource Status Report 2017. In Status reports of the fisheries and aquatic resources of Western Australia 2016/17: The state of the fisheries, eds DJ Gaughan and K Santoro. Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia, pp. 60–65.
- Fairclough, DV, Potter, IC, Lek, E, Bivoltsis, AK and Babcock, RC 2011, The fish communities and main fish populations of the Jurien Bay Marine Park, Centre for Fish and Fisheries Research, Murdoch University, Perth.
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- Gaughan, DJ and Santoro, K (eds.) 2018, Status Reports of the Fisheries and Aquatic Resources of Western Australia 2016/17: The State of the Fisheries. Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia, Perth, Australia. 237p.
- Giri, K and Hall, K 2015, South Australian Recreational Fishing Survey. Fisheries Victoria Internal Report Series No. 62. 75 pp.
- Gomon, MF, Bray, DJ and Kuiter, RH (Eds.) 2008, Fishes of Australia's Southern Coast, Reed New Holland, Sydney.
- Haddon, M 2013, Tier 4 analyses in the SESSF, including deep water species: data from 1986–2012. CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart.
- Haddon, M and Punt, A 2018, SimpleSA: A package containing functions to facilitate relatively simple stock assessments. R package version 0.1.10
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- James, GD 1980, Tagging experiments on trawl-caught trevally, Caranx georgianus, off north-east New Zealand, 1973–79, New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 14:249–254.
- Liggins, GW 1996, The interaction between fish trawling (in NSW) and other commercial and recreational fisheries, Final Report to Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, FRDC Project No. 92/79, NSW Fisheries Research Institute, Cronulla.
- Lyle, JM, Stark, KE and Tracey, SR 2014, 2012–13 survey of recreational fishing in Tasmania. IMAS, Hobart.
- Morison AK, Knuckey IA, Simpfendorfer CA and Buckworth RC 2013, South East Scalefish and Shark Fishery: draft 2012 stock assessment summaries for species assessed by GABRAG, ShelfRAG and Slope/DeepRAG. Report for AFMA, Canberra.
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- Rowling, KR and Raines, LP 2000, Description of the biology and an assessment of the fishery for silver trevally Pseudocaranx dentex off New South Wales, Final Report to Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, Project 97/125, NSW Fisheries Final Report Series No. 24, NSW Fisheries, Cronulla.
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- ShelfRAG 2013, Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery Shelf Resource Assessment Group (ShelfRAG), minutes, 25–27 September 2013, Tasmania. ShelfRAG, Australian Fisheries Management Authority, Canberra.
- Smith-Vaniz, WF and Jelks, HL 2006, Australian trevallies of the genus Pseudocaranx (Teleostei: Carangidae), with description of a new species from Western Australia, Memoirs of Museum Victoria, 63:97–106.
- Steer, MA, Fowler, A J, McGarvey, R, Feenstra, J, Westlake, EJ, Matthews, D, Drew, M, Rogers, PJ and Earl, J 2018, Assessment of the South Australian Marine Scalefish Fishery in 2016. SARDI Research Report Series. SARDI Publication No. F2017/000427-1. 250 pp.
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- Thomson, R, Fuller, M, Deng, R and Althaus, F 2016, Data summary for the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery: Logbook, Landings and Observer Data to 2015 (DRAFT).
- Webley, J, McInnes, K, Teixeira, D, Lawson, A and Quinn, R 2015, Statewide Recreational Fishing Survey 2013-14. Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Brisbane.
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