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Snapper is widely distributed in Australia and managed as twleve stocks. Seven are sustainable, one is recovering, three are depleted and one is undefined.
Stock Status Overview
|Victoria||Eastern Victoria||VIT, CIF, GLF, OF, OPSF, VRLF||Undefined||Catch|
|Victoria||Western Victoria||VIT, OF, PPBWPF, VRLF, OW||Sustainable||Catch, CPUE, pre-recruit survey, age and length composition|
- Corner Inlet Fishery (VIC)
- Gippsland Lakes Fishery (VIC)
- Ocean Fishery (VIC)
- Ocean Purse Seine Fishery (VIC)
- Ocean Wrasse (VIC)
- Port Phillip Bay and Western Port Bay Fishery (VIC)
- Victorian Inshore Trawl Fishery (VIC)
- Victorian Rock Lobster Fishery (VIC)
Snapper has a wide distribution in Australia, from the Gascoyne region on the west coast of Western Australia, around the south of the continent, and up to northern Queensland around Hinchinbrook Island [Kailola et al. 1993]. Within this broad distribution, the biological stock structure is complex.
Recent genetic studies of Snapper using microsatellite markers have led to a refined understanding of stock structure for the east Australian coast that have indicated greater complexity than previously thought. Snapper from Queensland to central New South Wales show little genetic differentiation and are considered to represent a single genetic stock [Morgan et al. in press], consistent with earlier studies using allozymes [Sumpton et al. 2008]. This stock is referred to as the East Coast Stock, with the Queensland and New South Wales components managed and assessed at the jurisdictional level. However, migratory dynamics between Queensland and New South Wales are not well understood and some studies have suggested limited long-range movements, with many fish showing extended periods of local residency [Harasti et al. 2015, Sumpton et al. 2003]. The majority of commercial landings in New South Wales are thought to consist of fish that recruit from local estuaries [Gillanders 2002]. In addition to the limited mixing within the stock, key biological traits of Snapper (such as the size and age at maturity) vary with latitude [Stewart et al. 2010]. It is therefore appropriate to manage and report on stock status of the East Coast biological stock of Snapper at the jurisdictional level – as Queensland and New South Wales jurisdictional stocks.
It is now considered that Snapper from eastern Victoria are genetically differentiated from those to the north of Eden on the southern coast of New South Wales [Morgan et al. unpublished]. As such, Snapper from Wilsons Promontory to southern New South Wales are considered to be a separate biological stock that is now referred to as the Eastern Victorian stock. Although there is low genetic variation between the eastern and western sides of Wilsons Promontory [Meggs and Austin 2003, Morgan et al. unpublished], separation between these populations has been supported by tagging and otolith chemistry studies [Coutin et al. 2003, Hamer et al. 2011]. Snapper to the west of Wilsons Promontory, including the important fisheries of Port Phillip Bay and Western Port, constitute the Western Victorian biological stock. This extends westward from Wilsons Promontory to near the mouth of the Murray River in south eastern South Australia [Donnellan and McGlennon 1996, Fowler et al. 2017, Hamer et al. 2011, Sanders 1974].
The South Australian fishery was originally divided into six management units, due to uncertainty about movement among different regional populations [Fowler et al. 2013]. However, a recent study evaluated the stock structure and adult movement among regional populations within South Australia, and also with western Victoria [Fowler 2016, Fowler et al. 2017], based on inter-regional comparisons of otolith chemistry and increment widths, as well as population characteristics. The study differentiated three stocks. The Western Victorian stock which extends westward into south-eastern South Australia depends on recruitment into, and subsequent emigration from, Port Phillip Bay in Victoria. As such, this is a cross-jurisdictional stock, although the components from the two states are still managed independently. The two other stocks are wholly located within South Australia. The Spencer Gulf/West Coast stock depends on recruitment into Northern Spencer Gulf from where some fish emigrate to replenish the populations of Southern Spencer Gulf and the west coast of Eyre Peninsula. The third stock is the Gulf St. Vincent stock, which relies on recruitment into Northern Gulf St. Vincent, and subsequent emigration to Southern Gulf St. Vincent and Investigator Strait [Fowler et al. 2016].
In Western Australia, Snapper is currently divided into six management units. At the smaller geographic scale inside Shark Bay, genetically-related but biologically separate stocks have been identified in the Eastern Gulf, Denham Sound and Freycinet Estuary based on otolith chemistry and tagging [Bastow et al. 2002, Edmonds et al. 1999, Gardner et al. 2017, Johnson et al. 1986, Moran et al. 2003, Norriss et al. 2012]. At the wider scale, Snapper in oceanic waters off the Western Australian coast that comprise the three remaining management units, i.e. Shark Bay oceanic, West Coast and South Coast, show low levels of genetic differentiation (microsatellites) over hundreds of kilometers consistent with a semi-continuous genetic stock where gene flow is primarily limited by geographic distance [Gardner and Chaplin 2011, Gardner et al. 2017]. Otolith chemistry has indicated residency of adult Snapper in the Gascoyne, West and South Coast bioregions, but with recruitment likely coming from multiple nursery areas [Fairclough et al. 2013, Wakefield et al. 2011]. Tagging studies support these findings with the majority of adults tagged at the key spawning locations in the Gascoyne and West Coast bioregions recaptured within 100 km, as well as location philopatry of adults that aggregate to spawn in embayments on the west coast [Crisafulli et al. in press, Moran et al. 2003, Wakefield et al. 2011].
Here, assessment of stock status for Snapper is presented at the biological stock level—Shark Bay inshore Eastern Gulf, Shark Bay inshore Denham Sound, Shark Bay inshore Freycinet Estuary (Western Australia); Eastern Victoria (Victoria), Western Victoria (Victoria and South Australia), Gulf St Vincent, Spencer Gulf/West Coast (South Australia); the management unit level—South Coast, Shark Bay Oceanic and West Coast (Western Australia); and the jurisdictional level–Queensland and New South Wales.
The Eastern Victorian biological stock extends from Wilsons Promontory into southern New South Wales [Morgan et al. unpublished]. In this region commercial harvests are mostly by Victorian and Commonwealth licensed operators. Recreational fishing is also important and thought to be growing, particularly in coastal waters between Lakes Entrance and Corner Inlet-Nooramunga where spawning aggregations are targeted on inshore reefs during the late spring/early summer.
Catch by the Victorian commercial sector is low relative to catches in the Western Victoria stock, averaging approximately 3.5 t per year since 2009–10, and rarely exceeding 5 t per year [VFA 2017]. Catches by Commonwealth operators are higher, averaging approximately 14.5 t since 2009–10 [VFA 2017]. Snapper is a bycatch species in the Commonwealth fishery. Due to the low and sporadic catches, and lack of any notable targeted commercial fishery, there is no reliable information on biomass trends from fishery dependent catch and effort data for the Eastern Victorian biological stock. Recreational catch is also unknown and there are no time series of catch rates or length/age composition for the recreational fishery. Given the lack of information on biomass or fishing mortality there is insufficient information available to confidently classify the status of this stock.
On the basis of the evidence presented above, the Eastern Victoria biological stock is classified as undefined.
Assessment of the Western Victorian biological stock is based on consideration of catch per unit effort (CPUE) fishery-independent trawl survey of pre-recruit (young-of-the-year) abundance in Port Phillip Bay, the main spawning and nursery area for this stock [Hamer et al. 2011]. Although this stock extends throughout the coastal waters of central/western Victoria and south-east South Australia, the main indicator data are derived from the major bay fisheries in Victoria; Port Phillip Bay and Western Port.
The most recent stock assessments were in 2016 and 2017 [Hamer and Conron 2016, VFA 2017]. These assessments indicated that commercial longline catch rates of adult Snapper in the main fishery region of Port Phillip Bay had increased from the late 1990s until the mid-2000s. The highest catch rates since effort recording began in 1978 were observed in 2011–12. In recent years, catch rates have declined slightly, but have remained at three to four times higher than the historic lows observed in the mid-late 1990s. Recreational catch rates of adult Snapper in Port Phillip Bay displayed a similar pattern of increase from the mid-1990s through the 2000s, peaking between 2010 and 2012. From 2013, recreational catch rates of adult Snapper dropped by approximately 50 per cent, but from 2014 have stabilised at levels approximately two times higher than the historical lows in the mid-1990s [VFA, unpublished data].
While the increased catch rates from the late 1990s to early 2010s may be partially attributed to increased capture-efficiency due to technology uptake, gear modifications and mobile communications, the increases were entirely consistent with increased recruitment rates observed by the pre-recruit surveys. Following moderate recruitment events in the mid-late 1990s, fishery independent surveys and age and length composition of catches by the recreational and commercial sectors showed three strong recruitment events occurred in 2001, 2004 and 2005 [Hamer and Conron 2016, VFA 2017]. These recruitment events were important in driving the increase in biomass of the Western Victorian Snapper stock observed during the 2000s. The recent decline in catch rates was expected as the two dominant cohorts in the adult component of the fishery (birth years 2001 and 2004) are now depleted. Pre-recruit surveys over the last 10 years have shown moderate recruitments in 2008, 2009, and 2010, strong recruitments in 2013 and 2014, and the largest recruitment in 26 years in 2018 [VFA 2017, VFA unpublished data]. The earlier of these cohorts recently recruited to the adult biomass, contributing to increased catch rates. The adult biomass and fishery catch rates are expected to increase further over the coming years due to the recent high juvenile recruitments.
The above evidence indicates that the biomass of this stock is unlikely to be depleted and that recruitment is unlikely to be impaired.
Commercial netting is being phased out in Port Phillip Bay. Since 2016, 34 of the 43 licences have been bought out by the Victorian Government. Commercial net fishing in Port Phillip Bay will cease by 2022 and has already ceased in Corio Bay. Netting methods (haul seine and mesh nets) accounted for, on average, approximately 35 per cent of the total Snapper harvest from Port Phillip Bay since 2000, mostly comprising immature/sub-adult fish. From 2015 to 2017, the commercial Snapper harvest in Port Phillip Bay dropped from approximately 104 t to 42 t due to the structural changes to the fishery and the remaining fishers transitioning from net to primarily hook methods. The Port Phillip Bay commercial Snapper harvest is currently capped at 88 t. Commercial harvest from coastal waters by the Victorian, South Australian and Commonwealth operators combined, was less than 20 t in 2016–17, compared to a peak of 285 t in 2009–10 [VFA, unpublished data]. The recreational fishery is the dominant harvest sector, with the most recent harvest estimate in 2006–07 in the order of 600 t [Ryan et al. 2017].
The above evidence indicates that the current level of fishing mortality is unlikely to cause the stock to become recruitment impaired.
On the basis of the evidence provided above, the Western Victorian biological stock is classified as a sustainable stock.
Snapper biology [Fowler et al. 2016, Jackson et al. 2010, Stewart et al. 2010, Wakefield et al. 2015, Wakefield et al. 2016]
|Species||Longevity / Maximum Size||Maturity (50 per cent)|
|Snapper||30–40 years, 1300 mm TL||2–7 years, 220–560 mm TL|
|Hook and Line|
|Traps and Pots|
|Hook and Line|
|Customary fishing permits|
|Commercial||1.02t in CIF, 4.83t in OF, 42.30t in PPBWPF, 4.93t in VRLF|
|Indigenous||Unknown (No catch under permit)|
|Recreational||~600 t (2006–07)|
- Corner Inlet Fishery (VIC)
- Ocean Fishery (VIC)
- Port Phillip Bay and Western Port Bay Fishery (VIC)
- Victorian Rock Lobster Fishery (VIC)
Western Australia - Recreational (Catch) Ryan et al. 2017.
Western Australia – Recreational (Management Methods) In Western Australia, total recreational catch limits (that is, maximum catch limits) have been applied to stocks of Snapper in inner Shark Bay and the west coast, to aid recovery of stocks.
Queensland – Indigenous (Management Methods) Under the Fisheries Act 1994 (Qld), Indigenous fishers in Queensland are entitled to use prescribed traditional and non-commercial fishing apparatus in waters open to fishing. Size and possession limits, and seasonal closures do not apply to Indigenous fishers. Further exemptions to fishery regulations may be applied for through permits.
New South Wales – Indigenous (Management Methods) (a) Aboriginal Cultural Fishing Interim Access Arrangement—allows an Indigenous fisher in New South Wales to take in excess of a recreational bag limit in certain circumstances; for example, if they are doing so to provide fish to other community members who cannot harvest for themselves; (b) The Aboriginal cultural fishing authority is the authority that Indigenous persons can apply to take catches outside the recreational limits under the Fisheries Management Act 1994 (NSW), Section 37 (1d)(3)(9), Aboriginal cultural fishing authority; and (c) In cases where the Native Title Act 1993 (Cth) applies fishing activity can be undertaken by the person holding native title in line with S.211 of that Act, which provides for fishing activities for the purpose of satisfying their personal, domestic or non-commercial communal needs. In managing the resource where native title has been formally recognised, the native title holders are engaged with to ensure their native title rights are respected and inform management of the State's fisheries resources.
New South Wales – Recreational (Catch) West et al. 2015.
Victoria – Indigenous (Management Methods) In Victoria, regulations for managing recreational fishing may not apply to fishing activities by Indigenous people. Victorian traditional owners may have rights under the Commonwealth's Native Title Act 1993 to hunt, fish, gather and conduct other cultural activities for their personal, domestic or non-commercial communal needs without the need to obtain a licence. Traditional Owners that have agreements under the Traditional Owner Settlement Act 2010 (Vic) may also be authorised to fish without the requirement to hold a recreational fishing licence. Outside of these arrangements, Indigenous Victorians can apply for permits under the Fisheries Act 1995 (Vic) that authorise fishing for specific Indigenous cultural ceremonies or events (for example, different catch and size limits or equipment). There were no Indigenous permits granted in 2017 and hence no Indigenous catch recorded.
South Australia – Recreational (Catch) Giri and Hall 2015.
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