Yelloweye Mullet (2018)
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Yelloweye Mullet is an estuary-based species found along southern Australia. Stocks in WA, SA and TAS are sustainable. The VIC stock is recovering.
Stock Status Overview
|South Australia||South Australia||LCF, MSF||Sustainable||Catch, CPUE|
- Lakes and Coorong Fishey (SA)
- Marine Scalefish Fishery (SA)
Yelloweye Mullet is widely distributed along the southern coasts of Australia, from Murchison River in Western Australia to Hunter River in New South Wales, and around Tasmania [Gomon et al. 2008]. Yelloweye Mullet typically occur in schools in nearshore marine waters from the intertidal zone to depths of at least 10 m, and are often abundant in estuaries and the lower reaches of rivers [Kailola et al. 1993, Connolly 1994].
Biological stock structure for Yelloweye Mullet in Australia is uncertain. It has been suggested that there are two biological stocks—Western and Eastern—based on morphological differences [Thomson 1957, Pellizzari 2001]. However, further studies are required to confidently define biological stock delineation for this species.
Here, assessment of stock status for Yelloweye Mullet is presented at the jurisdictional level—Western Australia, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia.
The multi-species and multi-gear Lakes and Coorong Fishery (LCF) has traditionally been the most important of South Australia’s fisheries for Yelloweye Mullet, accounting for around 90 per cent of the State’s total commercial catch since 2007, with the remainder taken by the Marine Scalefish Fishery (MSF). The most recent assessment for Yelloweye Mullet in the LCF was completed in 2013, and used data to the end of June 2012 [Earl and Ferguson 2013]. Interactions between Lakes and Coorong fishers and Long-nosed Fur Seals (Arctocephalus forsteri) have increased in recent years [Mackay 2017], with seal depredation on Yelloweye Mullet caught in gillnets likely to have resulted in reduced catches and CPUE for this species.
The primary measures for biomass and fishing mortality are total catch and targeted CPUE from commercial gillnet fishers. Commercial landings of Yelloweye Mullet in South Australia peaked at 460 t in 1990 and then progressively declined to 148 t in 2004. This long-term decline likely reflected a reduction in targeted effort in the MSF due a combination of licence buy-backs and low wholesale prices rather than a declining biomass, because estimates of annual CPUE were stable during this period. From 2008 to 2013, gillnet CPUE in the LCF increased to historically high levels, with an average annual catch of around 210 t. Catch declined to 121 t in 2015 reflecting a substantial decline in CPUE, before increasing to around 210 t in 2016. The total catch of 165.4 t in 2017 was associated with relatively high CPUE. The state-wide recreational catch was estimated at approximately 19 t in 2013/14 [Giri and Hall 2015]. The above evidence indicates that the biomass of this stock is unlikely to be depleted and that recruitment is unlikely to be impaired. Furthermore, the above evidence indicates that the current level of fishing mortality is unlikely to cause the stock to become recruitment impaired.
On the basis of the evidence provide above, Yelloweye Mullet in South Australia is classified as a sustainable stock.
Yelloweye Mullet biology [Edgar 2008, Earl and Ferguson 2013, Gaughan et al. 2006]
|Species||Longevity / Maximum Size||Maturity (50 per cent)|
|Yelloweye Mullet||10 years, 440 mm TL||2–3 years, 200–260 mm TL|
|Hook and Line|
|Pole and Line|
|Hook and Line|
|Hook and Line|
|Commercial||143.46t in LCF, 21.95t in MSF|
|Recreational||19 t (in 2013–14)|
- Lakes and Coorong Fishey (SA)
- Marine Scalefish Fishery (SA)
Victoria – Indigenous (Management methods) In Victoria, regulations for managing recreational fishing may not apply to fishing activities by Indigenous people. Victorian traditional owners may have rights under the Commonwealth's Native Title Act 1993 to hunt, fish, gather and conduct other cultural activities for their personal, domestic or non-commercial communal needs without the need to obtain a licence. Traditional Owners that have agreements under the Traditional Owner Settlement Act 2010 (Vic) may also be authorised to fish without the requirement to hold a recreational fishing licence. Outside of these arrangements, Indigenous Victorians can apply for permits under the Fisheries Act 1995 (Vic) that authorise fishing for specific Indigenous cultural ceremonies or events (for example, different catch and size limits or equipment). There were no Indigenous permits granted in 2017 and hence no Indigenous catch recorded.
Tasmania – Commercial (Catch totals) Catches reported for the Tasmanian Scalefish Fishery are for the period 1 July to 30 June the following year. The most recent assessment available is for 2016–17.
Tasmania – Indigenous (Management methods) In Tasmania, Indigenous persons engaged in aboriginal fishing activities in marine waters are exempt from holding recreational fishing licences, but must comply with all other fisheries rules as if they were licensed. Additionally, recreational bag and possession limits also apply. If using pots, rings, set lines or gillnets, Indigenous persons must obtain a Unique Identifying Code (UIC). The policy document Recognition of Aboriginal Fishing Activities for issuing a UIC to a person for Aboriginal Fishing activity explains the steps to take in making an application for a UIC.
Tasmania – Recreational (Fishing methods) In Tasmania, a recreational licence is required for fishers using dropline or longline gear, along with nets, such as gillnet or beach seine. The species is subject to a minimum size limit of 250 mm. Mullet (all species combined) are subject to a bag limit of 15 individuals and a possession limit of 30 individuals.
- Connolly, RM 1994, A comparison of fish assemblages from seagrass and unvegetated areas of a South Australian estuary, Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 45: 1033–1044.
- Conron S, Green C, Hamer, P, Giri, K and Hall, K 2016, Corner Inlet-Nooramunga Fishery Assessment 2016, Fisheries Victoria Science Report Series No. 11, Fisheries Victoria, Melbourne.
- Conron, S, Giri, K, Hall, K and Hamer, P 2016, Gippsland Lakes Fisheries Assessment 2016, Fisheries Victoria Science Report Series No. 14, Fisheries Victoria, Melbourne.
- Earl, J and Ferguson, GJ 2013, Yelloweye Mullet (Aldrichetta forsteri) stock assessment report 2011–12, Report to Primary Industries and Regions South Australia (Fisheries and Aquaculture), SARDI Publication F2007/001048-1, SARDI Research Report Series 737, South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide.
- Edgar, GD 2008, Australian marine life: the plants and animals of temperate waters. New Holland Publishers, Sydney.
- Froese, R, Demirel, N, Coro, G, Kleisner, K and Winker, H 2016, Estimating fisheries reference points from catch and resilience. Fish and Fisheries, 18(3): 506–526.
- Gaughan, D, Ayvazian, S, Nowara, G and Craine, M 2006, The development of a rigorous sampling methodology for a long-term annual index of recruitment for finfish species from south-western Australia, Fisheries Research and Development Corporation Project 1999/153, Fisheries Research Report 154, Western Australia Department of Fisheries, Perth.
- Giri, K and Hall, K 2015, South Australian recreational fishing survey 2013–14, Fisheries Victoria Internal Report Series No. 62, Victoria.
- Gomon, MF, Bray, DJ and Kuiter, RH (ed.s) 2008, Fishes of Australia’s southern coast, New Holland Publishers, Sydney.
- Hamer, P and Giri K 2016, Port Phillip Bay Commercial Fishery Assessment 2016. Fisheries Victoria Science Report Series No. 9.
- Kailola, P, Williams, MJ, Stewart, PC, Reichlet, RE, McNee, A and Grieve, C 1993, Australian fisheries resources, Bureau of Resource Sciences and Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra.
- Lyle, JM, Stark, KE and Tracey, SR 2014, 2012–13 survey of recreational fishing in Tasmania, Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart.
- Mackay, AI 2017, Operational interactions with Threatened, Endangered or Protected Species in South Australian Managed Fisheries. Data summary: 2007/08–2015/16. Report to PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture. South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide.
- Moore, BR, Lyle, J, Hartmann, K 2018, Tasmanian Scalefish Fishery Assessment 2016/17, Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart.
- Pellizzari, M 2001, A preliminary investigation of the biology of Yelloweye Mullet in South Australian waters, South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide.
- Ryan, KL, Hall, NG, Lai, EK, Smallwood, CB, Taylor, SM, Wise, BS 2017, Statewide survey of boat-based recreational fishing in Western Australia 2015/16. Fisheries Research Report No. 287, Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia.
- Thomson, JM 1957, Interpretation of the scales of the yellow-eye mullet, Aldrichetta forsteri (Cuvier and Valenciennes) (Mugilidae), Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 8: 14–28.
- Victorian Fisheries Authority 2017. Review of key Victorian fish stocks—2017. Victorian Fisheries Authority Science Report Series No. 1.