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Redthroat Emperor

Lethrinus miniatus

  • Tom Roberts (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Queensland)
  • David Fairclough (Department of Fisheries, Western Australia)

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Stock Status Overview

Stock status determination
Jurisdiction Stock Fisheries Stock status Indicators
Queensland East Coast Queensland CRFFF Sustainable Catch, CPUE , stock assessment
CRFFF
Coral Reef Fin Fish Fishery (QLD)
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Stock Structure

Genetic analysis indicates that there are two separate biological stocks of Redthroat Emperor in western and eastern Australian waters1.

Here, assessment of stock status is presented at the biological stock level—Western Australia and East coast Queensland.

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Stock Status

East Coast Queensland

The most recent assessment (2006) of the East coast Queensland biological stock7 of Redthroat Emperor used an integrated age structured model that incorporated all available information on catch, catch per unit effort and age structure. The model estimated that biomass in 2004 was approximately 70 per cent of the unfished (1946) level. The maximum sustainable yield was estimated to be in the range of 760–964 t per year. Since 2004–05, annual commercial catches have averaged approximately 220 t. The latest recreational estimate (for 2010) was 51 t, with the combined catch being well below the estimated maximum sustainable yield8. The stock is not considered to be recruitment overfished.

 

Fishing mortality over the past decade has been low compared with the maximum sustainable yield estimate, and both total catches and commercial standardised catch rates have been stable. This level of fishing pressure is highly unlikely to cause the stock to become recruitment overfished.

 

On the basis of the evidence provided above, the East coast Queensland biological stock is classified as a sustainable stock.

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Biology

Biology
Species Longevity / Maximum Size Maturity (50 per cent)
Redthroat Emperor 20 years; 650 mm TL  Females: 1.2 years; 280 mm FL, 310 mm TL

Redthroat Emperor biology1,9,10

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Distributions

Distribution of reported commercial catch of Redthroat Emperor

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Tables

Fishing methods
Queensland
Commercial
Line
Indigenous
Spearfishing
Hand Line, Hand Reel or Powered Reels
Recreational
Spearfishing
Hand Line, Hand Reel or Powered Reels
Management methods
Method Queensland
Commercial
Catch restrictions
Gear restrictions
Limited entry
Size limit
Spatial closures
Temporal closures
Vessel restrictions
Recreational
Catch limits
Gear restrictions
Limited entry
Passenger restrictions
Size limit
Spatial closures
Temporal closures
Active vessels
Queensland
162 in CRFFF
CRFFF
Coral Reef Fin Fish Fishery (QLD)
Catch
Queensland
Commercial 201.88t in CRFFF
Indigenous Unknown
Recreational 37 000 fish (2013); ~51 t, 63 t
CRFFF
Coral Reef Fin Fish Fishery (QLD)

Western Australiaa Queenslandb Indigenousc,d

 

 

a Data for Queensland align with the 2012–13 financial year.

 

b Data for Western Australia align with the 2015 calendar year.

 

c Under the Fisheries Act 1994 (Qld), Indigenous fishers in Queensland are entitled to use prescribed traditional and

Non-commercial fishing apparatus in waters open to fishing. Size and possession limits, and seasonal closures do not apply to Indigenous fishers. Further exemptions to fishery regulations may be applied for through permits.

 

d Subject to the defence that applies under Section 211 of the Native Title Act 1993 (Cth), and the exemption from a

requirement to hold a recreational fishing licence, the non-commercial take by indigenous fishers is covered by the same

arrangements as that for recreational fishing.

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Catch Chart

Commercial catch of Redthroat Emperor

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Effects of fishing on the marine environment

  • The incidence of coral disease is greatly increased in coral reef areas where fishing occurs, compared to areas where fishing is prohibited. Coral damage and derelict fishing line were the main causes of such difference in disease prevalence11.
  • The effect of removal of target fish and fishing induced mortality of discarded fish is unknown.
  • There is little evidence to suggest that the fisheries targeting Redthroat Emperor are impacting significantly on the marine environment or ecosystems.
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Environmental effects on Redthroat Emperor

  • Coral bleaching events caused by climate change-induced ocean warming threatens the persistence of coral reefs12, although it is unclear what effect this will have on Redthroat Emperor. Changes in ocean chemistry due to ocean acidification are also likely to affect coral reefs13. Additionally, ocean acidification has the potential to impact on the replenishment rates of coral reef finfish populations by affecting larval survival14, as well as individual growth rates and spawning output15.
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References

  1. 1 Van Herwerden, L, Aspden, WJ, Newman, SJ, Pegg, GG, Briskey, L and Sinclair, W 2009, A comparison of the population genetics of Lethrinus miniatus and Lutjanus sebae from the east and west coasts of Australia: evidence for panmixia and isolation, Fisheries Research, 100: 148–155.
  2. 2 Wise, B.S., St John, J., Lenanton, R.C. (Eds.), 2007, Spatial scales of exploitation among populations of demersal scalefish: implications for management. Part 1: stock status of the key indicator species for the demersal scalefish fishery in the West Coast Bioregion. Final report to Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, Project 2003/052. Fisheries Research Report No. 163. Department of Fisheries Western Australia. 130 pp.
    .
  3. 3 Department of Fisheries Western Australia 2011, Resource Assessment Framework (RAF) for finfish resources in Western Australia. Fisheries Occasional Publication No. 85. Department of Fisheries Western Australia, Perth.
  4. 4 Fairclough, DV, Molony, BW, Crisafulli, BM, Keay, IS, Hesp, SA and Marriott, RJ, 2014, Status of demersal finfish stocks on the west coast of Australia, Fisheries Research Report No. 253, Department of Fisheries Western Australia, Perth.
  5. 5 Fairclough, D, Lai, E, Holtz, M, Nicholas, T and Walters, S 2014, West coast demersal scalefish resource status report, in WJ Fletcher and K Santoro (eds), Status reports of the fisheries and aquatic resources of Western Australia 2013/14: state of the fisheries, Department of Fisheries Western Australia, Perth.
  6. 6 Ryan, KL, Wise, BS, Hall, NG, Pollock, KH, Sulin, EH and Gaughan, DJ 2013, An integrated system to survey boat-based recreational fishing in Western Australia 2011/12, Fisheries Research Report No. 268, Western Australian Department of Fisheries, Perth.
  7. 7 Leigh, G, Williams, A, Begg, G, Gribble, N and Whybird, O 2006, Stock assessment of the Queensland east coast Red Throat Emperor (Lethrinus miniatus), Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Brisbane.
  8. 8 Webley, JAC, McInnes, K, Teixeira, D, Lawson, A and Quinn, R 2015. Statewide Recreational Fishing Survey 2013–14. Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Queensland Government.
  9. 9 Williams, AJ 2003, Spatial patterns in population biology of a large coral reef fish: what role can movement play?, James Cook University, Townsville.
  10. 10 Williams, AJ, Davies, CR, Mapstone, BD and Russ, GR 2003, Scales of spatial variation in demography of a large coral-reef fish: an exception to the typical model?, Fishery Bulletin, 101: 673–683.
  11. 11 Lamb, JB, Williamson, DH, Russ, GR, and Willis, BL 2015, Protected areas mitigate diseases of reef-building corals by reducing damage from fishing, Ecology 96(9):2555-2567.
  12. 12 Hoegh-Guldberg, O. 1999, Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world’s coral reefs, Marine and Freshwater Research 50(8): 839-866
  13. 13 Hoegh-Guldberg, O, Mumby, PJ, Hooten, AJ, Steneck, RS, Greenfield, P, Gomez, E, Harvell, CD, Sale, PF, Edwards, AJ, Caldeira, K, Knowlton, N, Eakin, CM, Iglesias-Prieto, R, Muthiga, N, Bradbury, RH, Dubi, A and Hatziolos, ME 2007, Coral reefs under rapid climate changes and ocean acidification, Science, 318: 1737–1742.
  14. 14 Hughes, T 2010, Marine and Tropical Sciences Research Facility milestone report for program 2.5i.3, report to the Australian Government Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra.
  15. 15 Johnson, JE and Welch, DJ 2010, Marine fisheries management in a changing climate: a review of vulnerability and future options, Reviews in Fisheries Science, 18: 106–124.

Archived reports

Click the links below to view reports from other years for this fish.