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Stock Status Overview
|South Australia||South Australia||MSF, NZRLF||Sustainable||Catch, effort, CPUE trends|
- Marine Scalefish Fishery (SA)
- Northern Zone Rock Lobster Fishery (SA)
Also known as Shortfin Pike, Snook is distributed around southern Australia from Jurien Bay in Western Australia to southern Queensland, including northern Tasmania. It is usually found over seagrass beds and kelp reefs near the surface both in inshore and offshore waters of up to 20 m1–3. There is little information available on the stock structure of Snook in Australian waters.
Here, assessment of stock status is presented at the jurisdictional level—Western Australia, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia.
Snook are considered a secondary species within South Australia's multispecies, multi-gear and multi-sectoral commercial Marine Scalefish Fishery. Approximately 25 per cent of the annual catch is targeted using troll lines and hauling nets, with the remaining 75 per cent landed as by-product when fishers are targeting other higher value species. Targeted catch rates for both gear types are typically variable, ranging between 20–30 kg per fisher day and 20–80 kg per fisher day for troll lines and hauling nets, respectively. Total annual commercial catches have declined from a peak of 147 t in 1995 to 47 t in 2015, driven by an 81 per cent reduction in fishing effort. During this time, catch rates have remained relatively stable, declining by less than one per cent and 11 per cent for the troll line and hauling net sectors, respectively. Current estimates of total catch, targeted fishing effort and associated catch rates for both gear types are within the general trigger reference points prescribed in the fishery’s management plan (that is, within the 3rd highest/lowest boundaries over the 31-year reference period)6. It was estimated that in 2013–14, 126 t was harvested by the recreational sector, which was 53 per cent greater than the previous 2007–08 estimate7. The low contemporary catches and low levels of effort, combined with moderate–high targeted catch rates within the commercial fishery is unlikely to cause the South Australian stock to become recruitment overfished.
On the basis of the evidence provided above, Snook in South Australia is classified as a sustainable stock.
|Species||Longevity / Maximum Size||Maturity (50 per cent)|
|Snook||20 years; 1100 mm TL||420 mm TL|
Distribution of reported commercial catch of Snook
|Hand Line, Hand Reel or Powered Reels|
|Bag and possession limits|
|101, 99 in MSF|
- Marine Scalefish Fishery (SA)
|Commercial||46.69t in MSF|
- Marine Scalefish Fishery (SA)
a Tasmania – Recreational (management methods) In Tasmania, a recreational licence is required for fishers using dropline or longline gear, along with nets, such as gillnet or beach seine.
b Western Australia – Recreational (management methods) In Western Australia, a recreational fishing from boat licence is required to take finfish from a powered vessel.
c Victoria – Indigenous (management methods) In Victoria, regulations for managing recreational fishing are also applied to fishing activities by Indigenous people. Recognised Traditional Owners (groups that hold native title or have agreements under the Traditional Owner Settlement Act 2010 [Vic]) are exempt (subject to conditions) from the requirement to hold a recreational fishing licence, and can apply for permits under the Fisheries Act 1995 (Vic) that authorise customary fishing (for example, different catch and size limits or equipment). The Indigenous category in Table 3 refers to customary fishing undertaken by recognised Traditional Owners. In 2015, there were no applications for customary fishing permits to access Snook.
d Victoria – Indigenous (management methods) Subject to the defence that applies under Section 211 of the Native Title Act 1993 (Cth), and the exemption from a requirement to hold a Victorian recreational fishing licence, the non-commercial take by indigenous fishers is covered by the same arrangements as that for recreational fishing.
e Tasmania – Indigenous (management methods) In Tasmania, aborigines engaged in aboriginal fishing activities in marine waters are exempt from holding recreational fishing licences, but must comply with all other fisheries rules as if they were licensed. Additionally, recreational bag and possession limits also apply. If using pots, rings, set lines or gillnets, aborigines must obtain a unique identifying code (UIC). The policy document Recognition of Aboriginal Fishing Activities for issuing a Unique Identifying Code (UIC) to a person for Aboriginal Fishing activity explains the steps to take in making an application for a UIC.
f Western Australia – Recreational (catch) Western Australia boat-based recreational catch from 1 May 2013–30 April 2014.
g Victoria – Commercial (catch) Snook is not differentiated from Longfin Pike caught in Victorian commercial fisheries.
Commercial catch of Snook - note confidential catch not shown
Effects of fishing on the marine environment
- Trolling was considered a low risk to Snook populations in the 2012–13 ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the Tasmanian Scalefish Fishery8. It was also considered to have a negligible impact on associated by-product and bycatch species as capture is minimal and most are released alive and healthy. Trolling was also considered to be of negligible risk to threatened, endangered and protected (TEP) species as interactions are rare. While ‘Pike’ is an important predator, it is unlikely that the current level of fishing pressure is high enough to impact the ecosystem structure and associated marine environment.
- Mesh netting was considered a high risk to Snook populations in the 2012–13 ERA of the Tasmanian Scalefish Fishery8. This is due to the significant overlap between this sub-fishery and the species’ distribution along the north coast of Tasmania. Snook is also highly selected by the mesh size used and is usually retained. Some TEP species were also considered medium risk from mesh netting including: marine mammals, seabirds and chondrichthyans due to their low productivity and post release survival. Importantly, cormorants were ranked high risk, due to the increased likelihood of interactions occurring caused by gear being deployed in shallower waters. In reality, mesh net effort in northern Tasmania is at such a low level that the risk to these species is likely lower than identified in the ERA.
- The Victorian Bays and Inlets commercial fishers have adopted environmentally responsible fishing practices9. It is likely that fishing activities have minimal impact on the environment.
Environmental effects on Snook
- The impact of environmental factors on Snook is unknown. However, their abundance and distribution are likely to be affected by environmental conditions, including ocean currents, temperature and salinity, which may influence habitat suitability, food availability and recruitment.
- 1 Edgar, GJ 2008, Australian marine life: the plants and animals of temperate waters Reed New Holland Publishers, Sydney, Australia
- 2 Gomon, M, Bray, D, and Kuiter, R 2008, Fishes of Australia’s southern coast Reed New Holland Publishers, Sydney, Australia
- 3 Bertoni, M, 1995, The reproductive biology and feeding habits of the snook, Sphyraena novaehollandiae, in South Australian waters. Southern Fisheries. 3:34-35
- 4 Department of Fisheries Western Australia 2011, Resource Assessment Framework (RAF) for finfish resources in Western Australia. Fisheries Occasional Publication No. 85. Department of Fisheries Western Australia, Perth.
- 5 Emery, T, Lyle, J and Hartmann, K 2016, Tasmanian Scalefish Fishery assessment 2014/15, Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart.
- 6 PIRSA (2013) Management Plan of the South Australian Commercial Marine Scalefish Fishery. South Australian Fisheries Management Series. No. 59. 149 pp.
- 7 Giri K and Hall K 2015, South Australian Recreational Fishing Survey 2013/14. Fisheries Victoria Science Report Series No. 62.
- 8 Bell, JD, Lyle, JM, Andre, J and Hartmann, K 2016, Tasmanian scalefish fishery: ecological risk assessment. Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, Hobart, Tasmania.
- 9 Victorian Bays And Inlets Fisheries Association 2013, Environmental Management System Victorian Bays And Inlets Fisheries Association, Victoria.