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Western King Prawn

Melicertus latisulcatus

  • Craig Noell (South Australian Research and Development Institute)
  • Crystal Beckmann (South Australian Research and Development Institute)
  • Ian Jacobsen (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Queensland)
  • Mervi Kangas (Department of Fisheries, Western Australia)

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Stock Status Overview

Stock status determination
Jurisdiction Stock Fisheries Stock status Indicators
Western Australia Exmouth Gulf Prawn Managed Fishery EGPMF Sustainable Survey catch rates, size composition, catch, catch rates
Western Australia North Coast Prawn Managed Fisheries BPMF, NBPMF, OPMF Sustainable Catch
Western Australia Shark Bay Prawn Managed Fishery SBPMF Sustainable Survey catch rates, size composition, catch, catch rates
Western Australia South West Trawl Managed Fishery SWTMF Sustainable Catch
BPMF
Broome Prawn Managed Fishery (WA)
EGPMF
Exmouth Gulf Prawn Managed Fishery (WA)
NBPMF
Nickol Bay Prawn Managed Fishery (WA)
OPMF
Onslow Prawn Managed Fishery (WA)
SBPMF
Shark Bay Prawn Managed Fishery (WA)
SWTMF
South West Trawl Managed Fishery (WA)
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Stock Structure

Western King Prawn is distributed throughout the Indo–West Pacific1. No research has been conducted into Western King Prawn biological stock structure in Western Australia or Queensland, and status in those states is therefore reported at the management unit level. In South Australia, one study of the genetic structure of Western King Prawn found no differences between the three fisheries2; however, each fishery functions as an independent population at time scales relevant to management, with distinct adult and juvenile habitats and independent variations in recruitment and abundance. Each fishery in South Australia is therefore assessed and managed as a separate management unit.

Here, assessment of stock status is presented at the management unit level—Shark Bay Prawn Managed Fishery, Exmouth Gulf Prawn Managed Fishery, North Coast Prawn Managed Fisheries, South West Trawl Managed Fishery (Western Australia); East Coast Otter Trawl Fishery (Queensland); Spencer Gulf Prawn Fishery, Gulf St. Vincent Prawn Fishery and West Coast Prawn Fishery (South Australia).

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Stock Status

Shark Bay Prawn Managed Fishery

The status of the stocks of Western King Prawns in Shark Bay is assessed annually using a weight-of-evidence approach that considers all available information about the stocks3. The assessment approach is primarily based on monitoring of fishery-independent survey indices of recruitment (March–April) and spawning stock levels (June–August) relative to reference points specified in terms of survey catch rates of recruits and mature prawns4. Although these abundance indices are the key indicators for the stocks, other information collected throughout the season (such as commercial catch, effort and environmental data) is also evaluated to provide insight on, for example, operational factors that might affect fishery performance, or environmental factors affecting prawn recruitment.

Western King Prawns are comparatively more resilient to fishing than the Brown Tiger Prawn (the other key target species) because they are less catchable (strongly nocturnal and readily bury themselves when disturbed) and have a protracted spawning period5,6. The two species overlap in their spatial distribution within Shark Bay, and the rates of fishing that maintain the spawning biomass of Brown Tiger Prawn near target levels are considered to be below those that could result in Western King Prawn becoming recruitment overfished7.

Spatial and temporal analysis of historical commercial catch and effort data complemented by research sampling to identify key recruitment and spawning grounds provided no evidence of reduced recruitment for Western King Prawns across the range of spawning biomass levels in the 1970s–90s7, indicating that the spawning stock was never reduced to levels that affected recruitment. During this period, recruitment remained relatively stable despite substantial environmental changes, including variations in the Leeuwin Current, La Niña, and El Niño. There was also no significant correlation between spawning stock and recruitment indices derived from fishery-independent surveys for the Western King Prawn since 20008. The fishery-independent recruitment surveys undertaken each year since 2000 assess size structure, and are used for catch predictions8,9 and to inform management decisions regarding spatial-temporal opening of fishing areas.

There is no evidence of a declining trend in recruitment in fishery-independent survey indices since 20008 with the annual recruitment indices remaining well above the target reference level each year (25 kg per hour)10. The fishery-independent recruitment survey in 2015 indicated a mean catch rate (144 kg per hour) which was the third highest since surveys commenced in 2000, with a catch prediction between 940 and 1410 tonnes (t)4. The introduction of seasonal, moon and area-closures since the early 1990s limits the overall fishing effort, providing protection for the breeding stock of Western King Prawn8. Although the spawning stock surveys conducted in Shark Bay target key Brown Tiger Prawn areas, they also cover some of the Western King Prawn spawning areas and are considered to be indicative of overall spawning stock abundance for this species8 and a target catch rate level of 25 kg per hour is set for this area. In 2015, the mean spawning stock survey catch rate (54.1 kg per hour) was the highest since surveys commenced.

Historical catch from 1989–98, when it was known that recruitment was not affected by fishing effort, were used as the basis for calculating target total catch ranges for this stock4 (950–1350 t). Total commercial catch for 2015 of 1633 t was above the target catch range4,8 as a result of the very good recruitment.

The above evidence indicates that the biomass of the management unit is unlikely to be recruitment overfished and that the current level of fishing pressure is unlikely to cause the management unit to become recruitment overfished.

On the basis of the evidence provided above, the Shark Bay Prawn Managed Fishery (Western Australia) management unit is classified as a sustainable stock.

Exmouth Gulf Prawn Managed Fishery

As with the Shark Bay management unit, the status of stocks is assessed annually using a weight-of-evidence approach that considers all available information about the stocks3. The assessment is based on a combination of fishery-independent and fishery-dependent catch rates where fishery-independent surveys provide the recruitment indices and fishery-dependent data provide the spawning stock indices. Analysis of these two indices from the 1970s–90s provide no evidence of a stock-recruitment relationship for Western King Prawn7, with no indication of reduced recruitment in relation to spawning stock sizes over this period. Elevated temperatures since 2011 in this region appears to be contributing to lower than average recruitment levels11, in response to which conservative harvesting strategies have been introduced, resulting in reduced annual landings.

Fishery-independent recruitment surveys have been undertaken in March and April each year since 1985 to assess prawn abundance and size structure and are used for catch predictions9 and management decisions such as spatial-temporal opening of fishing areas12,13. In 2015, the Western King Prawn fishery-independent mean recruitment index was 25.4 kg per hour which was below the target13 (30 kg per hour). Fishing was therefore delayed in key Western King Prawn grounds until August when additional fishery-independent surveys indicated catch rates were above the target. The spawning stock catch rate index, derived from commercial catch and effort data in August–September in key Western King Prawn fishing grounds for 2015 was 35 kg per hour above the target (25 kg per hour)13.

In 1983, the effort on Western King Prawn increased significantly following action to reduce effort on the Brown Tiger Prawn. The annual production of Western King Prawn increased by around 40 per cent due to this increased effort. This increased production and higher than historical annual catches did not appear to result in any decrease in overall production over time or recruitment, indicating that spawning biomass of the stock was not reduced to levels that could affect recruitment. Current effort levels are well below the 1983 effort level. This indicates that at current levels of fishing pressure and with variations in environmental conditions, sufficient breeding stock will be available to ensure sufficient recruitment in the future.

Historical catch and catch rates from 1989–98, when it was known that recruitment was not affected by fishing effort, were used as the basis for calculating target total catch ranges for this stock4 (350–500 t) and a mean catch rate target (12 kg per hour; range 8–14 kg per hour). This target total catch range is being reviewed due to the apparent negative impacts of increased water temperature on Western King Prawn recruitment and with the level of effort having declined for the fishery as a result of fleet restructures and targeting larger prawns. The commercial catch for 2015 of 192 t was well below the target range with a mean catch rate (8.7 kg per hour) at the lower end of the target catch rate range.

The above evidence indicates that the biomass of the management unit is unlikely to be recruitment overfished and that the current level of fishing pressure is unlikely to cause the management unit to become recruitment overfished.

On the basis of the evidence provided above, the Exmouth Gulf Prawn Managed Fishery (Western Australia) management unit is classified as a sustainable stock.

North Coast Prawn Managed Fisheries

The North Coast Prawn Managed Fisheries (Western Australia) management unit is made up of four separate multispecies prawn fisheries, but is reported as one unit due to minimal catches. Western King Prawn forms a very minor part of total prawn landings in these fisheries and in some years no Western King Prawns are landed in at least one of these four fisheries4. Total commercial catch for 2015 was less than 1 t. Only in the Broome Prawn Managed Fishery is Western King Prawn the key target species, but costs and logistics of fishing in this fairly remote fishery has meant that since 2008 only one or two out of five boats have fished. Prior to 2008, between 1200 and 4200 trawl hours were recorded annually for a mean catch rate between 14 and 43 kg per hour. Since 2008, 30–275 hours of trawling has been conducted annually for a similar mean catch rate range. In 2015, only 30 hours of trawling was recorded. As for Exmouth Gulf, elevated water temperatures since 2011 in these North Coast Prawn Managed Fisheries may be contributing to lower than average recruitment levels11.

The above evidence indicates that the biomass of the management unit is unlikely to be recruitment overfished and that the current level of fishing pressure is unlikely to cause the management unit to become recruitment overfished.

On the basis of the evidence provided above, the North Coast Prawn Managed Fisheries (Western Australia) management unit is classified as a sustainable stock.

South West Trawl Managed Fishery

The South West Trawl Managed Fishery (Western Australia) (SWTMF) management unit is a comparatively small, low-activity fishery, in which effort has been related to either the abundance of Western King Prawn or Ballot’s Saucer Scallop in any given year, which can be highly variable due to sporadic scallop recruitment. Only two–four vessels have operated in the fishery since 2005, and they have only covered approximately one–three per cent of the allowable fishery area4. Since 2005, an average of 168 boat days have been recorded annually, with a catch range of between 3 and 14 t, compared to 490 boat days on average over the previous 10 years (1995–2004), with a catch range of between 9 and 37 t. The level of fishing pressure is unlikely to adversely impact the spawning biomass of Western King Prawn. No vessels fished in the SWTMF in 2015 due to low Ballot’s Saucer Scallop abundance. The above evidence indicates that the fishing pressure is unlikely to cause the stock to become recruitment overfished. It also indicates that the biomass of this stock is unlikely to be recruitment overfished.

On the basis of the evidence provided above, the South West Trawl Managed Fishery (Western Australia) management unit is classified as a sustainable stock.

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Biology

Biology
Species Longevity / Maximum Size Maturity (50 per cent)
Western King Prawn 2–3 years, maximum 4 years South Australia: males 46 mm CL, females 57 mm CL  Western Australia: males 45 mm CL, females 60 mm CL 6–7 months; 25 mm CL

Western King Prawn biology8,19,20

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Distributions

Distribution of reported commercial catch of Western King Prawn

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Tables

Fishing methods
Western Australia
Commercial
Otter Trawl
Unspecified
Recreational
Diving
Hand collection
Dip Net
Management methods
Method Western Australia
Commercial
Effort limits
Limited entry
Spatial closures
Vessel restrictions
Recreational
Bag limits
Charter licensing
Gear restrictions
Limited entry
Passenger restrictions
Recreational fishing licence
Spatial zoning
Active vessels
Western Australia
6 in EGPMF, 5 in NBPMF, 3 in OPMF, 18 in SBPMF
EGPMF
Exmouth Gulf Prawn Managed Fishery (WA)
NBPMF
Nickol Bay Prawn Managed Fishery (WA)
OPMF
Onslow Prawn Managed Fishery (WA)
SBPMF
Shark Bay Prawn Managed Fishery (WA)
Catch
Western Australia
Commercial 260.00kg in BPMF, 191.71t in EGPMF, 40.00kg in NBPMF, 11.00kg in OPMF, 1.63Kt in SBPMF
Indigenous Unknown
Recreational Unknown
BPMF
Broome Prawn Managed Fishery (WA)
EGPMF
Exmouth Gulf Prawn Managed Fishery (WA)
NBPMF
Nickol Bay Prawn Managed Fishery (WA)
OPMF
Onslow Prawn Managed Fishery (WA)
SBPMF
Shark Bay Prawn Managed Fishery (WA)

Indigenousa

a In Queensland, under the Fisheries Act 1994 (Qld), Indigenous fishers in Queensland are able to use prescribed traditional and non-commercial fishing apparatus in waters open to fishing. Size and possession limits, and seasonal closures do not apply to Indigenous fishers. Further exemptions to fishery regulations may be applied for through permits.

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Catch Chart

Commercial catch of Western King Prawn

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Effects of fishing on the marine environment

  • In 2011, the Spencer Gulf Prawn Fishery (South Australia) became the first prawn fishery in the South Pacific to become accredited by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC). Accreditation by the MSC has been maintained since. The Shark Bay and Exmouth Gulf prawn fisheries (Western Australia) were both accredited by MSC in October 2015.
  • Fishing for Western King Prawns in Western Australia, Queensland and South Australia is considered to be of low risk to the trophic structures in the ecosystems in which the fisheries operate. Although harvest rates may be relatively high, Western King Prawn have very high natural mortality rates and make up only a small proportion of the total biomass on the trawl grounds. Predators of prawns need to be opportunistic because of the natural variations in prawn populations. Consequently, given the small areas and short periods now fished, it is considered unlikely that the commercial take of prawns impacts significantly on other trophic levels4,8,12. An assessment of trawl-related risk to trophic structures was not explicitly assessed for the East Coast Otter Trawl Fishery (Queensland) (ECOTF), but in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP). It found that there is no more than an intermediate risk of overfishing species assemblages exposed to trawling14.
  • Although trawling can impact on habitats, these effects are managed in the Western King Prawn fisheries in Western Australia, Queensland and South Australia. In Western Australia, extensive permanent and temporary closures result in the fleet operating in only seven per cent of the Shark Bay fishery region and 17 per cent of inner Shark Bay, generally less than 30 per cent of the Exmouth Gulf, and less than three per cent of the north coast region. Fishing operations are restricted to areas of sand and mud, where trawling has minimal long-term physical impact4,8,12,21,22. In Queensland, the GBRMP occupies 63 per cent of the ECOTF23, 34 per cent of which is open to trawling24, but effort is highly aggregated, occurring within only a small fraction of the open area. South of the GBRMP, the fishery operates in only 10 per cent of the area open to trawling25. In South Australia, trawl effort has decreased by more than 60 per cent from its historical peaks in all fisheries. Since the inception of the South Australian fisheries, permanent closures have included all waters less than 10 m to ensure protection of seagrass habitats16.
  • Although the incidental capture of by-product and bycatch species by trawling can lead to a range of indirect ecosystem effects26, studies in Western Australia, Queensland and South Australia found no significant difference in biodiversity or overall distribution patterns of seabed biota between trawled and non-trawled areas15,21,22,27. The spatial contraction and/or temporal reduction in effort in all three jurisdictions are likely to have mitigated somewhat the ecosystem impacts of trawling.
  • The use of bycatch reduction devices (BRDs) in prawn trawling can significantly reduce bycatch—by more than 50 per cent by weight in some fisheries28,29. All prawn trawlers operating in Western Australia must use BRDs, including turtle excluder devices (TEDs), secondary fish exclusion devices and hoppers to increase survival of returned fish. The introduction of TEDs in the Western Australian prawn trawl fisheries in 2003 reduced turtle bycatch by at least 95 per cent30. In the ECOTF, the use of BRDs became mandatory in 1999, and the introduction of TEDs in 2001 largely eliminated capture of most large bycatch species, including turtles, sharks and rays31. More recently, commitment to continuous improvement in bycatch mitigation has facilitated increased use of best practice TEDs and BRDs in the ECOTF. Reduced impact of trawling and a general absence of high risk of overfishing bycatch species have been acknowledged in recent ecological risk assessments of the fishery14. In South Australia, all vessels use crab bags, and 49 of the 52 vessels use hopper systems to ensure rapid return of bycatch to the water. The Spencer Gulf, Shark Bay Prawn Managed Fishery and the Exmouth Gulf Prawn Managed Fishery MSC certifications include the assessment of broad environmental impacts and are important evidence for low risk of trawling impacts. In the Gulf St. Vincent Prawn Fishery (South Australia), all 10 vessels use T90-mesh codends with rigid grids that substantially reduce bycatch volumes32.
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Environmental effects on Western King Prawn

  • Major extreme weather events associated with the recent protracted La Niña episode33 are thought to have influenced recent recruitment patterns and depressed catches of a number of oceanic fishery species in Queensland, including Western King Prawn in 2011. Management of Western King Prawn and other species in the East Coast Otter Trawl Fishery (Queensland) management unit will benefit from knowledge gained from current research into the interrelationships among physical oceanographic features (for example, sea surface temperature anomalies), catch rates, biological parameters, and the spatial distribution of Saucer Scallop, a co-occurring species in Queensland and Western Australian trawl fisheries.
  • Water temperature has been shown to effect the recruitment of Western King Prawns in Western Australia, with elevated water temperatures in Exmouth Gulf since 2011 contributing to lower than average recruitment levels11.
  • In South Australia, there is some evidence to suggest that strong El Niño conditions result in unfavorable upwelling in critical spawning grounds, which may result in recruitment failure, particularly in the West Coast Prawn Fishery (South Australia) management unit34.
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References

  1. 1 Grey, DL, Dall, W and Baker, A 1983, A Guide to the Australian Penaeid Prawns, Northern Territory Department of Primary Production, Darwin.
  2. 2 Carrick, NA 2003, Spencer Gulf Prawn (Melicertus latisulcatus) Fishery, Fishery Assessment Report to Primary Industries and Regions South Australia Fisheries, South Australian Research and Development Institute publication RD03/0079-2, SARDI Research Report Series 161, SARDI, Adelaide.
  3. 3 Wise, BS, ST John, J and Lenanton, R 2007, Spatial scales of exploitation among populations of demersal scalefish: Implications for management. Part 1: Stock status of the key indicator species for the demersal scalefish fishery in the West Coast Bioregion. Report to the FRDC on Project No. 2003/052. Fisheries Research Report No. 163. Department of Fisheries, WA, 130 pp.
  4. 4 Fletcher, WJ (ed.) 2016, State of the Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Report 2016/15, Western Australian Department of Fisheries, Perth.
  5. 5 Penn, JW 1984, The behaviour and catchability of some commercially exploited penaeids and their relationship to stock and recruitment, in: Gulland, JA and Rothschild, BJ (eds.), Penaeid shrimps – their biology and management, Fishing News Books Ltd, Farnham, pp. 173-186.
  6. 6 Penn, JW and Caputi, N 1986, Spawning stock-recruitment relationships and environmental influences on the brown tiger prawn (Penaeus esculentus) fishery in Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 37: 491-505.
  7. 7 Caputi, N, Penn, JW, Joll, LM and Chubb, CF 1998, Stock-recruitment-environment relationships for invertebrate species of Western Australia. Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 125: 247-255.
  8. 8 Kangas, MI, Sporer, EC, Hesp, SA, Travaille, KL, Brand-Gardner, SJ, Cavalli, P and Harry, AV 2015, Shark Bay Prawn Managed Fishery, Western Australian Marine Stewardship Council Report Series 2: 294 pp.
  9. 9 Caputi , N, de Lestang, S, Hart, A, Kangas, M, Johnston, D, and Penn, J 2014, Catch predictions in stock assessment and management of invertebrate fisheries using pre-recruit abundance—case studies from Western Australia, Reviews in Fisheries Science and Aquaculture, 22:1, 36-54.
  10. 10 DoF 2014, Shark Bay Prawn Managed Fishery Harvest Strategy 2014 – 2019. Fisheries Management Paper No. 267. Department of Fisheries, WA.
  11. 11 Caputi, N, Feng, M, Pearce, A, Benthuysen, J, Denham, A, Hetzel, Y, Matear, R, Jackson, G, Molony, B, Joll, L and Chandrapavan, A 2014, Management implications of climate change effect on fisheries in Western Australia: Part 1, final report, Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, project 2010/535, Fisheries Research Report, Western Australian Department of Fisheries.
  12. 12 Kangas, MI, Sporer, EC, Hesp, SA, Travaille, KL, Moore, N, Cavalli, P and Fisher, EA 2015, Exmouth Gulf Prawn Managed Fishery, Western Australian Marine Stewardship Council Report Series 1: 273 pp. http://www.fish.wa.gov.au/Documents/wamsc_reports/wamsc_report_no_1.pdf
  13. 13 DoF. 2014, Exmouth Gulf Prawn Managed Fishery Harvest Strategy 2014 – 2019. Fisheries Management Paper No. 265. Department of Fisheries.
  14. 14 Pears, RJ, Morison, AK, Jebreen, EJ, Dunning, MC, Pitcher, CR, Courtney, AJ, Houlden, B and Jacobsen, IP 2012, Ecological risk assessment of the East Coast Otter Trawl Fishery in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park: technical report, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville.
  15. 15 Pitcher, CR, Doherty, P, Arnold, P, Hooper, J, Gribble, N, Bartlett, C, Browne, M, Campbell, N, Cannard, T, Cappo, M, Carini, G, Chalmers, S, Cheers, S, Chetwynd, D, Colefax, A, Coles, R, Cook, S, Davie, P, De’ath, G, Devereux, D, Done, B, Donovan, T, Ehrke, B, Ellis, N, Ericson, G, Fellegara, I, Forcey, K, Furey, M, Gledhill, D, Good, N, Gordon, S, Haywood, M, Jacobsen, I, Johnson, J, Jones, M, Kinninmoth, S, Kistle, S, Last, P, Leite, A, Marks, S, McLeod, I, Oczkowicz, S, Rose, C, Seabright, D, Sheils, J, Sherlock, M, Skelton, P, Smith, D, Smith, G, Speare, P, Stowar, M, Strickland, C, Sutcliffe, P, Van der Geest, C, Venables, W, Walsh, C, Wassenberg, T, Welna, A and Yearsley, G 2007, Seabed biodiversity on the continental shelf of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area, Australian Institute of Marine Science, CSIRO, Queensland Museum, Queensland Department of Primary Industries and CRC Reef Research Centre, task final report, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research.
  16. 16 PIRSA 2014, Management Plan for the South Australian Commercial Spencer Gulf Prawn Fishery, South Australian Fisheries Management Series, no. 67, Primary Industries and Regions South Australia, Adelaide.
  17. 17 Beckmann, CL, Noell, CJ and Hooper, GE 2015, Status of the Gulf St Vincent Prawn Penaeus (Melicertus) latisulcatus Fishery in 2014/15. Fishery Status Report to PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture. South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide. SARDI Publication No. F2007/00174-4. SARDI Research Report Series No. 870. 25pp.
  18. 18 Beckmann, CL and Hooper, GE 2016, Status of the West Coast Prawn Penaeus (Melicertus) latisulcatus Fishery in 2015. Fishery Status Report to PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture. South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide. SARDI Publication No. F2007/000772-8. SARDI Research Report Series No. 906. 33pp.
  19. 19 Penn, JW 1980, Spawning and fecundity of the western king prawn, Penaeus latisulcatus, Kishinouye, in Western Australian waters, Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 31: 21-35.
  20. 20 Noell, CJ and Hooper, 2015, Spencer Gulf Prawn Penaeus (Melicertus) latisulcatus Fishery 2013/14, Fishery Assessment Report to PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture, South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide. SARDI Publication No. F2007/000770-8. SARDI Research Report Series No. 843. 68pp.
  21. 21 Kangas, M, Morrison, S, Unsworth, P, Lai, E, Wright, I and Thomson, A 2007, Development of biodiversity and habitat monitoring systems for key trawl fisheries in Western Australia, final report, Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, project 2002/038, Fisheries Research Report 160, Fisheries Western Australia, North Beach.
  22. 22 Kangas, M, and Morrison, S 2013, Trawl impacts and biodiversity management in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Marine and Freshwater Research, 64: 1135–1155.
  23. 23 Huber, D 2003, Audit of the management of the Queensland East Coast Trawl Fishery in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville, www.gbrmpa.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0012/4080/Huber-2003.pdf.
  24. 24 Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry 2014, Queensland Stock Status Assessment Workshop 2014, 5–6 June 2014, Brisbane, Queensland DAFF, Brisbane.
  25. 25 Coles, R, Grech, A, Dew, K, Zeller, B and McKenzie, L 2008, A preliminary report on the adequacy of protection provided to species and benthic habitats in the East Coast Otter Trawl Fishery by the current system of closures, Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Brisbane.
  26. 26 Dayton, PK, Thrush, SF, Agardy, MT and Hofman, RJ 1995, Environmental effects of fishing, Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 5: 205–232.
  27. 27 Currie, DR, Dixon, CD, Roberts, SD, Hooper, GE, Sorokin, SJ and Ward, TM 2009, Fishery-independent by-catch survey to inform risk assessment of the Spencer Gulf Prawn Trawl Fishery, report to Primary Industries and Regions (Fisheries), South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide.
  28. 28 Brewer, D, Rawlinson, N, Eayrs, S and Burridge, C, 1998, An assessment of bycatch reduction devices in a tropical Australian prawn trawl fishery, Fisheries Research, 36:195–215. http://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/36904754/BRD_paper_1998.pdf
  29. 29 Kennelly, SJ and Broadhurst, MK 2014, Mitigating the bycatch of giant cuttlefish Sepia apama and blue swimmer crabs Portunus armatus in an Australian penaeid-trawl fishery, Endangered Species Research, 26:161–166.
  30. 30 Kangas, MI and Thomson, A 2004, Implementation and assessment of bycatch reduction devices in the Shark Bay and Exmouth Gulf trawl fisheries, final report, Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, project 2000/189, Western Australian Department of Fisheries, Perth. .
  31. 31 Roy, D and Jebreen, E 2011, Extension of Fisheries Research and Development Corporation funded research results on improved bycatch reduction devices to the Queensland East Coast Otter Trawl Fishery, final report to the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, project 2008/101, FRDC, Canberra, .
  32. 32 Dixon, C, Raptis, J, Gorman, D, Roberts, S, Hooper, G, Bicknell, N, Sorokin, S, Newman, R, Noell, C, Benediktsson, T, Saint, J and Hill, W 2013, A collaborative approach to novel by-catch research for rapid development, extension and adoption into a commercial trawl fishery, final report to the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, project 2009/069, South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences) publication F2012/000250-1, SARDI research report series 643, SARDI, Adelaide.
  33. 33 Bureau of Meteorology 2012, Record-breaking La Nĩna events. An analysis of the La Nĩna life cycle and the impacts and significance of the 2010–11 and 2011–12 La Nĩna events in Australia, Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne.
  34. 34 Carrick, N 2008, Determining the impact of environmental variability on the sustainability, fishery dynamics and economic performance of the West Coast Prawn Fishery, final report, Fisheries Research and Development Corporation project 2005/082, FRDC and Fisheries and Environmental Consulting Services, Canberra.

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