Southern Calamari (2018)
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Stocks of Southern Calamari are sustainable in SA, VIC and NSW waters. There is a depleting stock in TAS and an undefined stock in the Commonwealth jurisdiction.
Stock Status Overview
|Tasmania||Tasmania||SF||Depleting||Catch, effort, CPUE trends|
- Scalefish Fishery (TAS)
The biological stock structure across the distributional range of Southern Calamari is complex and potentially dynamic. One study using allozyme markers identified three genetic types with overlapping distributions and possible stocks off Western Australia, South Australia, New South Wales and Tasmania (data were not available for Victoria) [Triantafillos and Adams 2001]. In contrast, another study using microsatellite markers found little genetic differentiation between seven study sites in Western Australia, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia [Smith et al. 2015]. It also identified Tasmania as a possible important site for gene flow. Life history dynamics and studies of movement and statolith microchemistry in Tasmania also suggest some localised biological stock structuring [Pecl et al. 2011].
In the absence of conclusive evidence on biological stock boundaries, assessment of stock status is presented at the jurisdictional level—Commonwealth, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia.
The commercial fishery for Southern Calamari in Tasmania initially developed in the mid-1990s in the State’s south east during the latter half of the 1990s. Annual catches rose from less than 20 t prior to 1995–96 to around 100 t between 1997–98 and 2003–04. Management interventions, such as the introduction of a species-specific licence and seasonal closures on key spawning grounds in the south east, were put in place due to declines in catch and catch rates in the south east of the state. Since these interventions, catches, effort and catch rates in the State’s south east have been generally stable, with average annual catches of around 20–30 t reported from this region since 2006–07 [Moore et al. 2018].
Since the late 2000s, commercial landings of Southern Calamari off the State’s north coast have increased substantially, increasing from around 15 t prior to 2007 to 72 t in 2015–16 and 81.7 t in 2016–17 [Moore et al. 2018]. These catches have been accompanied by increased levels of fishing effort (fisher days), which have risen sharply over the same period, increasing in the State’s north from approximately 325 fisher days (all methods) to a record high of 994 fisher days in 2015–16 [Moore et al. 2018]. Catch rates in the north of the state have also increased over this period, with catch rates in the north-east reaching a record high in 2016–17 [Moore et al. 2018]. As there were no clear indications at the time that fishing mortality was excessive, the stock was considered sustainable [Moore et al. 2018]. However, data for 2017–18 indicates a substantial decline in catches and catch rates off the State’s north coast [Moore et al. in prep], with catches declining by 65 per cent along the north coast relative to 2016–17, accompanied by a decline of 57 per cent in catch rates in the State’s north east and 62 per cent in the State’s north west.
The most recent recreational catch estimate (2012–13) indicated that landings were 63.5 t in 2012–13 [Lyle et al. 2014] and similar to commercial landings in that year. Landings from the recreational fishery have increased consistently since 2000 [Lyle et al. 2009, Lyle et al. 2014], indicating high interest by recreational fishers in the species.
The sharp decline in catch and catch rates for the north coast in 2017–18 raises uncertainty about the sustainability of increased effort from both the commercial and recreational sectors on populations in that region. In addition, egg mop surveys conducted in late 2017 provided evidence of limited spawning activity on the main north coast fishing grounds, implying low abundance of spawning adults, although the role of local environmental factors at that time on spawning behaviour remain unclear. Nevertheless, catches in both 2015–16 and 2016–17 exceeded recent estimates of maximum sustainable yield (MSY) based on catch-only estimation methods (derived using the simpleSA R package of Haddon and Punt ). The MSY, derived from commercial catch data, for State waters was estimated to be 75 t (95 per cent CI = 64–84 t), and 33 t (95 per cent CI = 23–48 t) for the north coast. While there is uncertainty as to the current status of the biomass, recent high catches and effort, particularly off the north coast, suggest that fishing mortality has been excessive and likely to cause the stock to become recruitment impaired.
On the basis of the evidence provided above, Southern Calamari in Tasmania is classified as a depleting stock.
Southern Calamari biology [Pecl 2001, Pecl et al. 2004, Triantafillos 2004]
|Species||Longevity / Maximum Size||Maturity (50 per cent)|
|Southern Calamari||< 1 year, 550 mm ML, 3–4 kg||3–6 months; 150–200 mm ML|
|Hand Line, Hand Reel or Powered Reels|
|Temporal closures (spawning season)|
|Bag and possession limits|
|Temporal closures (spawning season)|
|Bag and possession limits|
|Temporal closures (spawning season)|
|Commercial||122.58t in SF|
|Recreational||65 t (2012–13)|
- Scalefish Fishery (TAS)
Commonwealth – Recreational The Commonwealth Government does not manage recreational fishing. Recreational fishing in Commonwealth waters is managed by the states or territory immediately adjacent to those waters, under their management regulations.
Commonwealth – Indigenous The Commonwealth Government does not manage non-commercial Indigenous fishing (with the exception of the Torres Strait). In general, non-commercial Indigenous fishing in Commonwealth waters is managed by the states or territory immediately adjacent to those waters. In the Torres Strait both commercial and non-commercial Indigenous fishing is managed by the Torres Strait Protected Zone Joint Authority (PZJA) through the Australian Fisheries Management Authority (Commonwealth), Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (Queensland) and the Torres Strait Regional Authority. The PZJA also manages non-Indigenous commercial fishing in the Torres Strait.
New South Wales – Indigenous (management methods) (a) Bag limits - the Aboriginal Cultural Fishing Interim Access Arrangement allows an Indigenous fisher in New South Wales to take in excess of a recreational bag limit in certain circumstances—for example, if they are doing so to provide fish to other community members who cannot harvest themselves; (b) Aboriginal cultural fishing authority - the authority that Indigenous persons can apply to take catches outside the recreational limits under the Fisheries Management Act 1994 (NSW), Section 37 (1d)(3)(9), Aboriginal cultural fishing authority; (c) Native title - in cases where the Native Title Act 1993 (Cth) applies fishing activity can be undertaken by the person holding native title in line with S.211 of that Act, which provides for fishing activities for the purpose of satisfying their personal, domestic or non-commercial communal needs. In managing the resource where native title has been formally recognised, the native title holders are engaged with to ensure their native title rights are respected and inform management of the State's fisheries resources.
New South Wales – Charter (catch) Considerable under-reporting of catch by this sector is likely [NSW DPI unpublished].
Victoria – Indigenous (management methods) In Victoria, regulations for managing recreational fishing may not apply to fishing activities by Indigenous people. Victorian traditional owners may have rights under the Commonwealth's Native Title Act 1993 to hunt, fish, gather and conduct other cultural activities for their personal, domestic or non-commercial communal needs without the need to obtain a licence. Traditional Owners that have agreements under the Traditional Owner Settlement Act 2010 (Vic) may also be authorised to fish without the requirement to hold a recreational fishing licence. Outside of these arrangements, Indigenous Victorians can apply for permits under the Fisheries Act 1995 (Vic) that authorise fishing for specific Indigenous cultural ceremonies or events (for example, different catch and size limits or equipment). There were no Indigenous permits granted in 2017 and hence no indigenous catch recorded.
Tasmania – Commercial (catch) Catches reported for the Tasmanian Scalefish Fishery are for the period 1 July to 30 June the following year. The most recent (complete) assessment available is for 2016–17.
Tasmania – Recreational (management methods) In Tasmania, a recreational licence is required for fishers using dropline or longline gear, along with nets, such as gillnet or beach seine. A bag limit of 10 individuals and a possession limit of 20 individuals is in place for recreational fishers.
Tasmania – Indigenous (management methods) In Tasmania, Indigenous persons engaged in aboriginal fishing activities in marine waters are exempt from holding recreational fishing licences, but must comply with all other fisheries rules as if they were licensed. Additionally, recreational bag and possession limits also apply. If using pots, rings, set lines or gillnets, Indigenous fishers must obtain a unique identifying code (UIC). The policy document Recognition of Aboriginal Fishing Activities for issuing a UIC to a person for Aboriginal Fishing activity explains the steps to take in making an application for a UIC.
- Giri, K, Hall K 2015, South Australian recreational fishing survey. Fisheries Victoria Internal Report Series No. 62.
- Green, CP 2015, Jigging for Science—Defining the spawning needs of calamari in Port Phillip Bay. Recreational Fishing Grants Program research report, Vic DPI, Melbourne.
- Haddon M and Punt A 2018, simpleSA: A package containing functions to facilitate relatively simple stock assessments. R package version 0.1.10.
- Hall, KC 2015, Southern calamari (Sepioteuthis australis), In: J Stewart, A Hegarty, C Young, AM Fowler, and J Craig (ed.s), Status of fisheries resources in NSW 2013–14, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Mosman, pp 310–313.
- Lyle, JM, Stark, KE and Tracey, SR 2014, 2012–13 survey of recreational fishing in Tasmania. IMAS, Hobart.
- Lyle, JM, Tracey, SR, Stark, KE and Wotherspoon, S 2009, 2007–08 survey of recreational fishing in Tasmania. Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute, Hobart.
- Moore, B, Lyle, J and Hartmann, K 2018, Tasmanian Scalefish Fishery assessment 2016/17, Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart.
- NSW DPI unpublished, Status of Australian Fish Stocks 2018–NSW Stock status summary–Southern Calamari (Sepioteuthis australis), NSW Department of Primary Industries, Coffs Harbour.
- Pecl, G 2001, Flexible reproductive strategies in tropical and temperate Sepioteuthis squids, Marine Biology, 138: 93–101.
- Pecl, G, Tracey, S, Danyushevsky, L, Wotherspoon, S and Moltschaniwskyj, N 2011, Elemental fingerprints of Southern Calamari (Sepioteuthis australis) reveal local recruitment sources and allow assessment of the importance of closed areas, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 68(8): 1351–1360.
- Pecl, GT, Moltschaniwskyj, NA, Tracey, SR and Jordan, AR 2004, Inter-annual plasticity of squid life history and population structure: ecological and management implications, Oecologia, 139(4): 515–524.
- Review of key Victorian fish stocks—2017 Victorian Fisheries Authority Science Report Series No. 1.
- Smith, TM, Green, CP and Sherman, CDH 2015, Patterns of connectivity and population structure of the southern calamary Sepioteuthis australis in southern Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research, 66:942–947.
- Steer, MA, Fowler, AJ, McGarvey, R, Feenstra, J, Smart, J, Rogers, PJ, Earl, J, Beckmann, C, Drew, M, Matthews, D 2018 Assessment of the South Australian Marine Scalefish Fishery in 2017. Report to PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture. South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide. SARDI Publication No. 2017/000427-2. SARDI Report Series No. 1002.
- Triantafillos, L 2004, Effects of genetic and environmental factors on growth of southern calamary, Sepioteuthis australis, from southern Australia and northern New Zealand, Marine and Freshwater Research, 55: 439–446.
- Triantafillos, L and Adams, M 2001, Allozyme analysis reveals a complex population structure in the southern calamary Sepioteuthis australis from Australia and New Zealand, Marine Ecology Progress Series, 212: 193–209.
- VFA Unpublished data 2017, Victorian Southern Calamari Assessment 2000–2017. Victorian Fisheries Authority.
- West, LD, Stark, KE, Murphy, JJ, Lyle, JM and Ochwada-Doyle FA 2015, Survey of recreational fishing in New South Wales and the ACT, 2013/14, Fisheries final report series 149, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Wollongong.
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