Saddletail Snapper (2018)
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Saddletail Snapper is a widespread species. It is fished across Australia’s north from Shark Bay in WA, to the east coast of QLD. Stocks in WA and northern Australia (NT and QLD) are sustainable. The QLD east coast stock is undefined.
Stock Status Overview
|Queensland||East Coast Queensland||CRFFF||Undefined||Catch, effort, CPUE|
|Queensland||Northern Australia||GOCDFFTF, GOCLF||Sustainable||Catch, CPUE, SRA|
- Coral Reef Fin Fish Fishery (QLD)
- Gulf of Carpentaria Developmental Fin Fish Trawl Fishery (QLD)
- Gulf of Carpentaria Line Fishery (QLD)
Saddletail Snapper is a widespread Indo-Pacific species found from Shark Bay in Western Australia, across northern Australia to the east coast of Queensland [Newman, 2002]. Genetic studies indicate that the species is comprised of three biological stocks: the North Coast Bioregion biological stock, the Northern Australian biological stock (including the Timor Sea, Arafura Sea and the Gulf of Carpentaria) and the East coast of Queensland biological stock [Elliot 1996, Salini et al. 2006].
Here, assessments of stock status are presented at the biological stock level—North Coast Bioregion (Western Australia), Northern Australia (Northern Territory and Queensland) and East coast Queensland.
East Coast Queensland
There has been no stock assessment of this biological stock and there is no estimate of MSY for East Coast Queensland Saddletail Snapper. Saddletail Snapper comprised approximately 57 per cent (120 t) [QDAF 2018] of the Crimson Snapper and Saddletail Snapper species complex reported during the 2013–14 recreational fishing survey [Webley et al 2015]. Recreational catches of Saddletail Snapper constitute around 70 per cent of the total landings for the species [QDAF 2018].
Around 2004, the reported commercial harvest declined from an average of 150 t per year to around 50 t per year. This decrease coincided with expansion of no-take marine reserves within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) and the introduction of a quota management system for coral reef finfish species. Both management interventions are likely to have influenced commercial harvest. However, since 2012–13, both commercial catches and catch rates have been steadily increasing from 38 t to 77 t in 2016–17 and 40 kg per day to 59 kg per day, respectively. Commercial harvest of Saddletail Snapper falls under the “Other Species” quota in the Coral Reef Fin Fish Fishery (CRFFF, 956 t in 2016–17), which comprises many other coral reef finfish species. The Indigenous catch is unknown but is expected to be minor. A portion of the biomass is afforded some protection from fishing by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, although this has not been quantified. With increasing targeting of this species and a high degree of uncertainty on the status of the biomass, there is insufficient information available to confidently classify the status of this stock.
On the basis of the evidence provided above, the East Coast Queensland biological stock is classified as an undefined stock.
This cross-jurisdictional biological stock has components in the Northern Territory and Queensland. Each jurisdiction assesses that part of the biological stock that occurs in its waters. The status presented here for the entire biological stock has been established using evidence from both jurisdictions.
For the Northern Territory component of this biological stock (where most of the commercial catch is taken), Saddletail Snapper was assessed in 2013 using a stochastic stock reduction analysis (SRA) model [Martin 2013]. Egg production in 2013 was estimated to be around 80 per cent of that prior to the start of the fishery. This evidence indicates that this part of the stock is unlikely to be depleted.
The Northern Territory manages the commercial harvest of Saddletail Snapper and Crimson Snapper together as ‘red snappers’ with a combined total allowable commercial catch of 3 800 t. Saddletail Snapper has averaged 78 per cent of the annual red snapper catch over the past 10 years, with the 2017 commercial catch of this species being 2 077 t. Trawl effort and catch per unit effort have both increased since 2012. The 2013 assessment indicated that the current harvest rate of Saddletail Snapper is well below that required to achieve maximum sustainable yield (MSY). This level of fishing pressure is unlikely to cause this part of the stock to become recruitment impaired.
Saddletail Snapper in the Queensland component of the stock are mainly taken by the commercial Gulf of Carpentaria Developmental Fin Fish Trawl Fishery (GOCDFFTF). The MSY for this part of the stock is approximately 150 t [Leigh and O'Neill 2016] and the average catch from 2006–15 was slightly below this level. Less than 0.5 t has been landed by the Gulf of Carpentaria Line Fishery (GOCLF) since 2013. The above evidence indicates that the biomass of this part of the stock is unlikely to be depleted and that recruitment is unlikely to be impaired.
The total allowable commercial catch (TACC) for target species for the Queensland GOCDFFTF was reduced from 1 250 t to 450 t in 2014 and changed to a species-specific non-transferable quota entitlement with a TACC of 150 t for Saddletail Snapper on 1 July 2016 as part of new permitting arrangements. There has been no fishing in the GOCDFFTF since the start of the 2016–17 financial year. This contrasts with catches of 150–250 t per year during the period 2006–11 and catches of 0–67 t during the period 2012–15. There is no reliable estimate of recreational or Indigenous harvest of Saddletail Snapper in the GOC, but it is expected to be minor given the offshore nature of the fishery. The above evidence indicates that the current level of fishing mortality is unlikely to cause the Queensland component of the stock to become recruitment impaired.
On the basis of the evidence provided above, the Northern Australia biological stock is classified as a sustainable stock.
Saddletail Snapper biology [Fry and Milton 2009, Fry et al. 2009, McPherson et al. 1992, McPherson and Squire 1992, Carpenter and Niem 2001, Newman 2002, Newman et al. 2000]
|Species||Longevity / Maximum Size||Maturity (50 per cent)|
|Saddletail Snapper||Northern and Western Australia: 33 years, 680 mm SL East coast Queensland, 20 years; 1000 mm TL||Northern and Western Australia: 9 years, Males 280 mm SL, Females 370 mm SL East coast Queensland: Females 576 mm FL|
|Hook and Line|
|Hook and Line|
|Hook and Line|
|Hook and Line|
|Total allowable catch|
|Commercial||76.93t in CRFFF, 210.00kg in GOCLF|
|Recreational||120 t [QDAF 2018]|
- Coral Reef Fin Fish Fishery (QLD)
- Gulf of Carpentaria Line Fishery (QLD)
Western Australia – Active Vessels Data is confidential as there were fewer than three vessels in Pilbara Fish Trawl Interim Managed Fishery and Pilbara Trap Managed Fishery.
Western Australia – Recreational (Catch) Boat-based recreational catch is from 1 September 2015–31 August 2016. These data are derived from those reported in [Ryan et al. 2017].
Western Australia – Recreational (management methods) A Recreational Fishing from Boat Licence is required for the use of a powered boat to fish or to transport catch or fishing gear to or from a land-based fishing location.
Western Australia – Indigenous (management methods) Subject to the defence that applies under Section 211 of the Native Title Act 1993 (Cth), and the exemption from a requirement to hold a recreational fishing licence, the non-commercial take by Indigenous fishers is covered by the same arrangements as that for recreational fishing.
Northern Territory – Recreational (catch) Saddletail Snapper and Crimson Snapper catch were combined during the Northern Territory 2010 recreational fishing survey [West et al. 2012].
Northern Territory – Charter (management methods) In the Northern Territory, charter operators are regulated through the same management methods as the recreational sector but are subject to additional limits on license and passenger numbers.
Northern Territory – Indigenous (management methods) The Fisheries Act 1988 (NT), specifies that “…without derogating from any other law in force in the Territory, nothing in a provision of this Act or an instrument of a judicial or administrative character made under it limits the right of Aboriginals who have traditionally used the resources of an area of land or water in a traditional manner from continuing to use those resources in that area in that manner”.
Queensland – The reporting period for the commercial Coral Reef Fin Fish Fishery (Queensland) is financial year (2016–17).
Queensland – Indigenous (management methods) Under the Fisheries Act 1994 (Qld), Indigenous fishers in Queensland are entitled to use prescribed traditional and non-commercial fishing apparatus in waters open to fishing. Size and possession limits, and seasonal closures do not apply to Indigenous fishers. Further exemptions to fishery regulations may be applied for through permits.
- Carpenter, KE and Niem, VH 2001, (Eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae). Rome, FAO. 2001. pp 27913380.
- DPIRD 2017, North Coast demersal scalefish resource harvest strategy 2017–2021. Version 1.0. Fisheries Management Paper No. 285. Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Government of Western Australia, Perth, Australia. 35p.
- Elliot, NG 1996, Allozyme and mitochondrial DNA analysis of the tropical saddle-tail sea perch, Lutjanus malabaricus (Schneider), from Australian Waters. Marine and Freshwater Research, 47: 869–876.
- Fry, G and Milton, DA 2009, Age, growth and mortality estimates for populations of red snappers Lutjanus erythropterus and L. malabaricus from northern Australia and eastern Indonesia. Fisheries Science, 75: 1219–1229.
- Fry, G, Milton, DA, Van Der Velde, T, Stobutzki, I, Andamari, R, Badrudin and Sumiono, B 2009, Reproductive dynamics and nursery habitat preferences of two commercially important Indo–Pacific red snappers Lutjanus erythropterus and L. malabaricus. Fisheries Science, 75: 145–158.
- Leigh, GM and O'Neill, MF 2016, Gulf of Carpentaria Finfish Trawl Fishery: Maximum Sustainable Yield, Agri-Science Queensland, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Queensland.
- Martin, JM 2013, Stock assessment of Saddletail Snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus) in the Northern Territory Demersal and Timor Reef Fisheries, Northern Territory Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries, Darwin, unpublished report.
- McPherson, GR and Squire, L 1992, Age and growth of three dominant Lutjanus species of the Great Barrier Reef Inter-Reef Fishery. Asian Fisheries Science, 5: 25–36.
- McPherson, GR, Squire, L and O'Brien, J 1992, Reproduction of three dominant Lutjanus species of the Great Barrier Reef Inter-Reef Fishery. Asian Fisheries Science, 5: 15–24.
- Newman, SJ 2002, Growth rate, age determination, natural mortality and production potential of the scarlet sea perch, Lutjanus malabaricus Schneider 1801, off the Pilbara coast of north-western Australia, Fisheries Research, 58: 215–225.
- Newman, SJ, Brown, JI, Fairclough, DV, Wise, BS, Bellchambers, LM, Molony, BW, Lenanton, RCJ, Jackson, G., Smith, KA, Gaughan, DJ, Fletcher, WJ, McAuley, RB and Wakefield, CB 2018, A risk assessment and prioritisation approach to the selection of indicator species for the assessment of multi-species, multi-gear, multi-sector fishery resources. Marine Policy, 88: 11–22.
- Newman, SJ, Cappo, M, Williams, DM 2000, Age, growth, mortality rates and corresponding yield estimates using otoliths of the tropical red snappers, Lutjanus erythropterus, L. malabaricus and L. sebae, from the central Great Barrier Reef. Fisheries Research, 48: 1–14.
- Newman, SJ, Wakefield, C, Skepper, C, Boddington, D, Jones, R and Smith, E 2018, North Coast Demersal Resource Status Report 2017. pp. 127–133. In: Gaughan, D.J. and Santoro, K. (eds.). Status Reports of the Fisheries and Aquatic Resources of Western Australia 2016/17: The State of the Fisheries. Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia, Perth, Australia. 237p.
- Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries 2018, Queensland Stock status Assessment Workshop Proceedings 2018. Species Summaries. 19–20 June 2018, Brisbane.
- Ryan, KL, Hall, NG, Lai, EK, Smallwood, CB, Taylor, S.M., Wise, BS 2017, Statewide survey of boat-based recreational fishing in Western Australia 2015/16. Fisheries research Report No. 287. Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Government of Western Australia, Perth.
- Salini, J, Ovenden, J, Street, R, Pendrey, R, Haryantis and Ngurah 2006, Genetic population structure of red snappers (Lutjanus malabaricus Bloch and Schneider, 1801 and Lutjanus erythropterus Bloch, 1790) in central and eastern Indonesia and northern Australia. Journal of Fish Biology, 68(suppl. B): 217–234.
- Webley, J, McInnes, K, Teixeira, D, Lawson, A and Quinn, R 2015, Statewide Recreational Fishing Survey 2013-14, Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Brisbane.
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