SILVER TREVALLIES (2020)
Pseudocaranx georgianus, Pseudocaranx sp. "dentex" & Pseudocaranx wrighti, Pseudocaranx dinjerra
Date Published: June 2021
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Silver Trevally inhabits estuarine and coastal waters throughout southern temperate Australia. Of the seven separate Australian stocks, five (in WA, SA, VIC, TAS and the Commonwealth) are sustainable. The NSW stock is depleted and the QLD stock is undefined.
Stock Status Overview
Silver Trevallies comprises a complex of species that inhabits estuarine and coastal waters (depths of 10–230 m) throughout southern temperate Australia, from southern Queensland, south through New South Wales, Tasmania, Victoria, South Australia and southern and central Western Australia [Smith-Vaniz and Jelks 2006, Bearham et al. 2020].
The biological stock structure of Silver Trevallies is uncertain. Fisheries are based on a species complex that varies by region, with Pseudocaranx georgianus present in all jurisdictions except Queensland, Pseudocaranx wrighti present in all jurisdictions except Queensland and New South Wales, Pseudocaranx dinjerra only present in Western Australia, and Pseudocaranx sp. ‘dentex’ only present in Queensland [Smith-Vaniz and Jelks 2006, Gomon et al. 2008, Bearham et al. 2020]. Investigations of population connectivity and post-settlement movement are also limited. Despite fast swimming ability, tag-recapture studies in Western Australia, New South Wales and New Zealand indicate restricted post-settlement movement of P. georgianus, potentially leading to ecological stock structuring over moderate (hundreds of kilometres) spatial scales [James 1980, Fairclough et al. 2011, Fowler et al. 2018].
Here, assessment of stock status is presented at the jurisdictional level—Commonwealth, Western Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia.
Silver Trevallies (assumed to be P. georgianus) in Commonwealth fisheries is managed as a Tier 4 stock under the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery (SESSF) Harvest Strategy Framework [AFMA 2019]. The 2017 analysis [Haddon & Sporcic 2017] informed the management of the stock for the 2019–20 fishing season.
The Tier 4 analysis by Haddon and Sporcic  used the reference period 1992–2001 and excluded data from historical catches taken within the Batemans Marine Park. The analysis identified a rapid decline in CPUE from 1990, to be near the limit reference point of 20 per cent of unfished biomass by 2000. The CPUE then increased to 2010, when it was above the target, but has since declined and appears relatively flat and stable between the limit and the target reference points [Haddon and Sporcic 2017]. The 2017 analysis produced a one year recommended biological catch (RBC) of 445 t.
Landed catch in the Commonwealth Trawl and Scalefish Hook sectors of the SESSF was 21 tonnes (t) in the 2019–20 fishing season (8.3 t in 2018–19 fishing season). The majority of the catch in the 2019–20 fishing season was taken in the trawl sector (20.9 t). Discards have been estimated to be 119.6 t based on the weighted average of the previous four calendar years (2015 to 2018) [Burch et al. 2019]. Since 1991, when reliable records began, catches have been well below the RBCs produced by the 2013 and 2017 analyses and the total fishing mortality in recent years has been below corresponding TACs. Since the 2017 analysis, the TAC has been gradually reduced to 292 t for the 2019–2020 fishing season.
The above evidence indicates that the stock is unlikely to be depleted and the current level of fishing pressure is unlikely to cause the stock to become recruitment impaired. On the basis of the evidence provided above, Silver Trevallies in the Commonwealth is classified as a sustainable stock.
Silver Trevallies biology [Rowling and Raines 2000]
|Species||Longevity / Maximum Size||Maturity (50 per cent)|
|SILVER TREVALLIES||13–18 years, 690–938 mm TL||190–200 mm TL|
Distribution of reported commercial catch of Silver Trevallies. No catch distribution data are provided for Queensland as Silver Trevallies are not distinguished from other trevally species in relevant Queensland commercial fishery logbooks.
|Marine park closures|
|Total allowable catch|
Commonwealth – Commercial (Management Methods/Catch) Data provided for the Commonwealth align with the Commonwealth Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery for the 2018-19 financial year.
Commonwealth – Recreational The Commonwealth does not manage recreational fishing in Commonwealth waters. Recreational fishing in Commonwealth waters is managed by the state or territory immediately adjacent to those waters, under its management regulations.
Commonwealth – Indigenous The Australian government does not manage non-commercial Indigenous fishing in Commonwealth waters, with the exception of Torres Strait. In general, non-commercial Indigenous fishing in Commonwealth waters is managed by the state or territory immediately adjacent to those waters.
Western Australia – Recreational (management methods) In Western Australia, a licence is required to recreationally fish from a powered vessel.
Western Australia – Recreational (Catch) Shore based catches are unknown, thus landings would be underestimated.
Queensland – Indigenous (management methods) for more information see https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/business-priorities/fisheries/traditional-fishing
New South Wales – Recreational (Catch) Murphy et al. .
New South Wales – Indigenous https://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/fishing/aboriginal-fishing
Victoria – Commercial (catch) Silver trevally (Pseudocaranx georgianus) is not differentiated from other trevallies caught in Victorian commercial fisheries.
Victoria – Indigenous A person who identifies as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander is exempt from the need to obtain a Victorian recreational fishing licence, provided they comply with all other rules that apply to recreational fishers, including rules on equipment, catch limits, size limits and restricted areas. Traditional (non-commercial) fishing activities that are carried out by members of a traditional owner group entity under an agreement pursuant to Victoria’s Traditional Owner Settlement Act 2010 are also exempt from the need to hold a recreational fishing licence, subject to any conditions outlined in the agreement. Native title holders are also exempt from the need to obtain a recreational fishing licence under the provisions of the Commonwealth’s Native Title Act 1993.
Tasmania – Indigenous (management methods) In Tasmania, Indigenous persons engaged in traditional fishing activities in marine waters are exempt from holding recreational fishing licences, but must comply with all other fisheries rules as if they were licensed. If using pots, rings, set lines or gillnets, Indigenous fishers must obtain a unique identifying code (UIC). The policy document "Recognition of Aboriginal Fishing Activities” details application procedures for issuing a UIC.
Commercial catch of Silver Trevallies - note confidential catch not shown
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