Pseudocaranx georgianus, Pseudocaranx sp. "dentex" & Pseudocaranx wrighti, Pseudocaranx dinjerra

  • Ashley Fowler (Department of Primary Industries, New South Wales)
  • Rowan C. Chick (Department of Primary Industries, New South Wales)
  • Nils Krueck (Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania)
  • David Fairclough (Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia)
  • Victorian Fisheries Authority (Victorian Fisheries Authority)
  • Timothy Emery (Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences (ABARES))
  • Anthony Roelofs (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Queensland)
  • Paul Rogers (South Australian Research and Development Institute)
  • Emily Fisher (Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia)

Date Published: June 2021

You are currently viewing a report filtered by jurisdiction. View the full report.

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Silver Trevally inhabits estuarine and coastal waters throughout southern temperate Australia. Of the seven separate Australian stocks, five (in WA, SA, VIC, TAS and the Commonwealth) are sustainable. The NSW stock is depleted and the QLD stock is undefined.  

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Stock Status Overview

Stock status determination
Jurisdiction Stock Stock status Indicators
Queensland Queensland Undefined


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Stock Structure

Silver Trevallies comprises a complex of species that inhabits estuarine and coastal waters (depths of 10–230 m) throughout southern temperate Australia, from southern Queensland, south through New South Wales, Tasmania, Victoria, South Australia and southern and central Western Australia [Smith-Vaniz and Jelks 2006, Bearham et al. 2020].

The biological stock structure of Silver Trevallies is uncertain. Fisheries are based on a species complex that varies by region, with Pseudocaranx georgianus present in all jurisdictions except Queensland, Pseudocaranx wrighti present in all jurisdictions except Queensland and New South Wales, Pseudocaranx dinjerra only present in Western Australia, and Pseudocaranx sp. ‘dentex’ only present in Queensland [Smith-Vaniz and Jelks 2006, Gomon et al. 2008, Bearham et al. 2020]. Investigations of population connectivity and post-settlement movement are also limited. Despite fast swimming ability, tag-recapture studies in Western Australia, New South Wales and New Zealand indicate restricted post-settlement movement of P. georgianus, potentially leading to ecological stock structuring over moderate (hundreds of kilometres) spatial scales [James 1980, Fairclough et al. 2011, Fowler et al. 2018].

Here, assessment of stock status is presented at the jurisdictional level—Commonwealth, Western Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia.

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Stock Status


Catch and effort data for Silver Trevallies (P. sp. ‘dentex’) in Queensland are poor. Commercial and charter catches of Silver Trevallies are not reported specifically, and the species is included as part of a broader ‘Trevally-unspecified’ category. Silver Trevallies were reported specifically in recreational fishing surveys up until 2013–14 and approximately 2000 fish were landed [Webley et al. 2015]. They are no longer reported separately in the statewide survey owing to the uncertainty in species identity. It is unlikely that the combined commercial and recreational catches exceeded 10 t in 2019. Silver Trevallies are not subject to size restrictions, although a combined recreational possession limit of 20 applies to members of the Carangidae family. There is insufficient information available to confidently classify the status of the stock.

On the basis of the evidence provided above, Silver Trevallies in Queensland is classified as an undefined stock.

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Silver Trevallies biology [Rowling and Raines 2000]

Species Longevity / Maximum Size Maturity (50 per cent)
SILVER TREVALLIES 13–18 years, 690–938 mm TL 190–200 mm TL 
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Distribution of reported commercial catch of Silver Trevallies. No catch distribution data are provided for Queensland as Silver Trevallies are not distinguished from other trevally species in relevant Queensland commercial fishery logbooks.

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Fishing methods
Hook and Line
Hook and Line
Management methods
Method Queensland
Possession limit
Spatial closures
Gear restrictions
Limited entry
Spatial closures
Possession limit
Spatial closures
Commercial 981.40kg
Indigenous Unknown, Unknown
Recreational ~2 t, 2000 fish

Commonwealth – Commercial (Management Methods/Catch) Data provided for the Commonwealth align with the Commonwealth Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery for the 2018-19 financial year.

Commonwealth – Recreational The Commonwealth does not manage recreational fishing in Commonwealth waters. Recreational fishing in Commonwealth waters is managed by the state or territory immediately adjacent to those waters, under its management regulations.  

Commonwealth – Indigenous The Australian government does not manage non-commercial Indigenous fishing in Commonwealth waters, with the exception of Torres Strait. In general, non-commercial Indigenous fishing in Commonwealth waters is managed by the state or territory immediately adjacent to those waters.

Western Australia – Recreational (management methods) In Western Australia, a licence is required to recreationally fish from a powered vessel.

Western Australia – Recreational (Catch) Shore based catches are unknown, thus landings would be underestimated.

Queensland – Indigenous (management methods) for more information see https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/business-priorities/fisheries/traditional-fishing

New South Wales – Recreational (Catch) Murphy et al. [2020].

New South Wales – Indigenous https://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/fishing/aboriginal-fishing

Victoria – Commercial (catch) Silver trevally (Pseudocaranx georgianus) is not differentiated from other trevallies caught in Victorian commercial fisheries.

Victoria – Indigenous A person who identifies as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander is exempt from the need to obtain a Victorian recreational fishing licence, provided they comply with all other rules that apply to recreational fishers, including rules on equipment, catch limits, size limits and restricted areas. Traditional (non-commercial) fishing activities that are carried out by members of a traditional owner group entity under an agreement pursuant to Victoria’s Traditional Owner Settlement Act 2010 are also exempt from the need to hold a recreational fishing licence, subject to any conditions outlined in the agreement. Native title holders are also exempt from the need to obtain a recreational fishing licence under the provisions of the Commonwealth’s Native Title Act 1993.

Tasmania – Indigenous (management methods) In Tasmania, Indigenous persons engaged in traditional fishing activities in marine waters are exempt from holding recreational fishing licences, but must comply with all other fisheries rules as if they were licensed. If using pots, rings, set lines or gillnets, Indigenous fishers must obtain a unique identifying code (UIC). The policy document "Recognition of Aboriginal Fishing Activities” details application procedures for issuing a UIC.

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Catch Chart

Commercial catch of Silver Trevallies - note confidential catch not shown

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Downloadable reports

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