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Blue Swimmer Crab (2020)

Portunus armatus

  • Danielle Johnston (Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia)
  • Arani Chandrapavan (Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia)
  • Lisa Walton (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Queensland)
  • Crystal Beckmann (South Australian Research and Development Institute)
  • Daniel Johnson (Department of Primary Industries, New South Wales)
  • Anna Garland (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Queensland)

Date Published: June 2021

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Summary

Australia has ten stocks of Blue Swimmer Crab across WA, Qld, NSW and SA. Nine of those stocks are sustainable with one stock in WA classified as depleted.

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Stock Status Overview

Stock status determination
Jurisdiction Stock Stock status Indicators
South Australia Gulf St. Vincent Sustainable Fishery-independent legal-sized relative catch rate
South Australia Spencer Gulf Sustainable Fishery-independent legal-sized relative catch rate
South Australia West Coast Sustainable Catch, CPUE
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Stock Structure

Blue Swimmer Crab is distributed in Australia from the south coast of Western Australia, north to the Northern Territory, across Queensland, down the east coast and to the New South Wales–Victoria border. They are also found in the warmer waters of the South Australian gulfs [Kailola et al. 1993].

In Western Australia, Blue Swimmer Crab is fished in numerous fisheries across five regions. The stock delineation between these regions is unknown [Chaplin et al. 2001; Chaplin et al. 2008]. Stock structure on the east coast of Australia is uncertain, involving overlapping stocks or a semi-continuous stock [Chaplin et al. 2001]. Due to the geographic separation between the major fishing grounds for Blue Swimmer Crab in New South Wales and Queensland, they are managed as two separate biological stocks. In South Australia, research has identified three separate biological stocks of Blue Swimmer Crab—in Spencer Gulf, Gulf St Vincent and on the coastline west of the Eyre Peninsula [Bryars and Adams 1999, Dixon and Hooper 2011].

Here, assessment of stock status is presented at the biological stock level—North-Eastern Australia (Queensland), South-Eastern Australia (New South Wales), Spencer Gulf, Gulf St Vincent and West coast (South Australia), and at the management unit level—Shark Bay, Cockburn Sound, Peel-Harvey Estuary, Western Australian North Coast and Western Australian South-West Coast (Western Australia).

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Stock Status

Gulf St. Vincent

In the South Australian gulfs, access to take Blue Swimmer Crabs is provided via a Blue Crab Fishery (BCF) or a Marine Scalefish Fishery (MSF) licence endorsed with quota entitlements. The MSF licence holders predominantly use hoop and drop nets while the pot fishing sector of the BCF uses specifically designed crab pots. Determination of stock status is based on a fishery-independent pot survey with trigger and limit reference points based on survey catch rate, as indices of relative biomass and fishing mortality [PIRSA 2020]. The TACC levels have been set since 1996 to limit Blue Swimmer Crab catches within ecologically sustainable limits set in the management plans [PIRSA 2020]. Since 1999–2000, exploitation rates have been limited by setting the TACC at levels below the maximum historical catch for the fishery.  Throughout South Australia, a legal minimum size (LMS) of 110 mm carapace width (CW) is enforced, at which size crabs are approximately 14–18 months old and sexually mature. Females produce at least two batches of eggs each season [Kumar et al. 2003].

The most recent stock assessment reported that 97% of the TACC (382 t) was harvested in the 2018–19 season [Beckmann et al. 2020]. Catch rates of legal-sized crabs in 2019 (5.3 kg crabs per pot-lift) were above the target reference point (3.7 kg crabs per pot-lift) and the highest on record [Beckmann et al. 2020]. The catch rate of legal-sized crabs has been above the trigger reference point since 2016. The above evidence indicates that the biomass of this stock is unlikely to be depleted and that recruitment is unlikely to be impaired. Furthermore, the above evidence indicates that the current level of fishing mortality is unlikely to cause the stock to become recruitment impaired.  

On the basis of the evidence provided above, the Spencer Gulf biological stock is classified as a sustainable stock.

Spencer Gulf

In the South Australian gulfs, access to commercially harvest Blue Swimmer Crabs is provided via a Blue Crab Fishery (BCF) or a Marine Scalefish Fishery (MSF) licence endorsed with quota entitlements. The MSF licence holders predominantly use hoop and drop nets while, the pot fishing sector of the BCF uses specifically designed crab pots. Determination of stock status is based on a fishery-independent pot survey with trigger and limit reference points based on survey catch rate, as an index of relative biomass and fishing mortality [PIRSA 2020]. The TACC levels have been set since 1996 to limit Blue Swimmer Crab catches within ecologically sustainable limits set in the management plans [PIRSA 2020]. Since 1999–2000, exploitation rates have been limited by setting the TACC at levels below the maximum historical catch for the fishery.  Throughout South Australia, a legal minimum size (LMS) of 110 mm carapace width (CW) is enforced, at which size crabs are approximately 14–18 months old and sexually mature. Females produce at least two batches of eggs each season [Kumar et al. 2003].

The most recent stock assessment reported that 97% of the TACC (382 t) was harvested in the 2018–19 season (Beckmann et al. 2020). Catch rates of legal-sized crabs in 2019 (5.3 kg crabs per pot-lift) were above the target reference point (3.7 kg crabs per pot-lift) and the highest on record [Beckmann et al. 2020]. The catch rate of legal-sized crabs has been above the trigger reference point since 2016. The above evidence indicates that the biomass of this stock is unlikely to be depleted and that recruitment is unlikely to be impaired. Furthermore, the above evidence indicates that the current level of fishing mortality is unlikely to cause the stock to become recruitment impaired.  

On the basis of the evidence provided above, the Spencer Gulf biological stock is classified as a sustainable stock.

West Coast

On the West Coast of South Australia, access to take Blue Swimmer Crabs is provided via a Marine Scalefish Fishery (MSF) licence. MSF licence holders predominantly use hoop and drop nets. The West Coast zone is not subject to the quota management system and is managed separately to the BCF. This zone of the fishery operates under the Management Plan for the MSF [PIRSA 2018] that specifies general performance indicators assessed in Steer et al. [2020].

In 2018–19 a total of 47.4 t was harvested (1 July 2018–30 June 2019) and this was above the ten-year average (2008–09–2017–18; 47.1± 3.2 t). The primary indices of biomass and fishing mortality for the West Coast biological stock are the commercial CPUE and catch trends. Comparison of recent CPUE and catch trends to values in the past decade is considered to provide a reliable proxy for relative biomass and fishing mortality. These historical values have been stable at relatively high levels, indicating that the biomass of this stock was unlikely to be depleted or that recruitment was unlikely to be impaired in the past decade. The 2018–19 targeted crab net catch rate was 70.3 kg per boat day and the catch rate has remained around this level since 2007–08 (range: 52.3–79.4 kg per boat day). The above evidence indicates that the biomass of this stock is unlikely to be depleted, that recruitment is unlikely to be impaired and that the current level of fishing mortality is unlikely to cause the stock to become recruitment impaired.

On the basis of the evidence provided above, the West Coast biological stock is classified as a sustainable stock.

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Biology

Blue Swimmer Crab Biology [de Lestang et al. 2003a,b, Sumpton et al. 2003]

Biology
Species Longevity / Maximum Size Maturity (50 per cent)
Blue Swimmer Crab 3–4 years, ~ 200 mm CW Varies among locations, 6–14 months, 86–110 mm CW 
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Distributions

Blue Swimmer Crab Spatial Distribution

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Tables

Fishing methods
South Australia
Commercial
Unspecified
Blue Swimmer Crab Trap
Recreational
Diving
Coastal, Estuary and River Set Nets
Management methods
Method South Australia
Commercial
Gear restrictions
Limited entry
Protection of egg-bearing females
Size limit
Spatial closures
Spatial zoning
Temporal closures
Total allowable catch
Recreational
Bag limits
Boat limits
Gear restrictions
Protection of egg-bearing females
Size limit
Spatial closures
Catch
South Australia
Commercial 45.46t
Indigenous Unknown
Recreational 376 t (Dec 2013–Nov 2014)

Western Australia – Recreational (catch) Boat-based recreational catch in 2017/18 [Ryan et al. 2019]. Does not include scoop netting and other methods of recreational fishing.

Queensland – Indigenous (management methods) for more information see https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/business-priorities/fisheries/traditional-fishing

New South Wales – Indigenous (Management Methods) https://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/fishing/aboriginal-fishing

New South Wales – Recreational (Catch)  Recreational catch estimate of 26.7 t is based on (i) an estimated recreational catch of 50 637 Blue Swimmer Crabs by NSW resident recreational anglers in 2013–14 [West et al. 2015]; and (ii) an assumed mean weight of kept Blue Swimmer Crabs of 0.530 kg/crab. This remains the most reliable estimate of annual recreational catch because the 2017-18 survey estimate of 14.2 t  estimated using a mean weight of 0.225 kg/ crab [Murphy et al. 2020] applies only to 1-3 year recreational licence holders.

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Catch Chart

Commercial catch of Blue Swimmer Crab - note confidential catch not shown.

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References

  1. Beckmann, CL, Noell C and Hooper, GE 2020, Blue Crab (Portunus armatus) Fishery 2018/19. Fishery Assessment Report to PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture. South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide. SARDI Publication No. F2007/000729-16. SARDI Research Report Series No. 1058. 45pp.
  2. Bessell-Browne, P, Prosser, A, and Garland, A 2020 Pre-recruit abundance indices for eastern king prawn, blue swimmer crab and snapper in south eastern Queensland. Department of Agriculture and Fisheries. Brisbane, Queensland.
  3. Bryars, S and Adams, M 1999, An allozyme study of the blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus (Crustacea: Portunidae), in Australia: stock delineation in southern Australia and evidence for a cryptic species in northern waters, Marine and Freshwater Research, 50: 15–26.
  4. Chandrapavan A, Caputi N, Kangas M. 2019. The decline and recovery of a crab population from an extreme marine heatwave and a changing climate. Frontiers in Marine Science. 6 (510).
  5. Chandrapavan A, Kangas M, Johnston D, Caputi N, Hesp A, Denham A, Sporer E . 2018. Improving the confidence in the management of the blue swimmer crab (Portunus armatus) in Shark Bay. Part 1: Rebuilding of the Shark Bay Crab Fishery. FRDC Project No. 2012/15. Fisheries Research Report No. 285. Department of Fisheries, Western Australia.
  6. Chaplin, J, Yap, ES, Sezmis, E and Potter, IC 2001, Genetic (microsatellite) determination of the stock structure of the blue swimmer crab in Australia, Fisheries Research and Development report, FRDC project 98/118, Murdoch University, Western Australia.
  7. Chaplin, JA and Sezmis, E 2008, A genetic assessment of the relationships among the assemblages of the blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus, in Cockburn Sound, the Swan River Estuary and Warnbro Sound, Final report to the Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, Centre for Fish and Fisheries Research, Murdoch University.
  8. de Lestang, S, Bellchambers, LM, Caputi, N, Thomson, AW, Pember, MB, Johnston, DJ and Harris, DC 2010, Stock– recruitment–environment relationship in a Portunus pelagicus fishery in Western Australia, in GH Kruse, GL Eckert, RJ Foy, RN Lipcius, B Sainte-Marie, DL Stram and D Woodby (eds), Biology and management of exploited crab populations under climate change, Alaska Sea Grant, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, doi: 10.4027/bmecpcc.2010.06.
  9. de Lestang, S, Hall, NG and Potter, IC 2003a, Reproductive biology of the Blue Swimmer Crab, Portunus pelagicus (Decapoda: Portunidae) in five water bodies on the west coast of Australia, Fishery Bulletin, 101: 745–757.
  10. de Lestang, S, Hall, NG and Potter, IC 2003b, Do the age compositions and growth of the crab Portunus pelagicus in marine embayments and estuaries differ?, Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 83: 1– 8.
  11. Dixon, CD and Hooper, GE 2011, Blue Crab (Portunus pelagicus) Fishery 2009/10, Stock assessment report to Primary Industries and Resources South Australia (Fisheries and Aquaculture), South Australian Research and Development Institute publication F2007/000729-7, SARDI research report series 531, SARDI, Adelaide.
  12. DPIRD (2020). Blue Swimmer Crab Resource of Shark Bay Harvest Strategy 2020-2025 Version 1.0. Fisheries Management Paper No 300. Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia.
  13. Haddon, M. Punt, A. and Burch, P 2018, simpleSA: A package containing functions to facilitate relatively simple stock assessments. R package version 0.1.18.
  14. Henry GW, Lyle JM 2003, The national recreational and Indigenous fishing survey. Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra.
  15. Johnson, D D 2020, Status of Australian Fish Stocks 2020 – NSW Stock status summary – Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus armatus).
  16. Johnson, DD, Gray, CA and Macbeth, WG 2010, Reproductive biology of Portunus pelagicus in a south-east Australian estuary, Journal of Crustacean Biology, 30: 200–205.
  17. Johnston, D, Chandrapavan, A, Garland, A, Beckmann, C, and Johnson, D (2018) Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus armatus). Status of Australian fish stock reports 2018. Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra.
  18. Johnston, D, Chandrapavan, A, Wise, B and Caputi, N 2014, Assessment of blue swimmer crab recruitment and breeding stock levels in the Peel–Harvey Estuary and status of the Mandurah to Bunbury Developing Crab Fishery, Fisheries research report 258, Western Australian Department of Fisheries, Perth.
  19. Johnston, D, Harris, D, Caputi, N, de Lestang, S and Thomson, A 2011b, Status of the Cockburn Sound Crab Fishery, Fisheries research report 219, Western Australian Department of Fisheries, Perth.
  20. Johnston, D, Yeoh, D, Harris, D and Fisher, E 2020a. Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus armatus) Resource in the West Coast Bioregion, Western Australia. Part 1: Peel-Harvey Estuary, Cockburn Sound and Swan-Canning Estuary. Fisheries Research Report No. 307. Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia. 194 pp
  21. Johnston, D, Yeoh, D, Harris, D and Fisher, E 2020b. Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus armatus) and Mud Crab (Scylla serrata and Scylla olivacea) Resources in the North Coast and Gascoyne Coast Bioregions, Western Australia. Fisheries Research Report No. 306. Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia. 156pp.
  22. Johnston, DJ, Harris, D, Caputi, N and Thomson, P 2011a, Decline of a blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) fishery in Western Australia—history, contributing factors and future management strategy, Fisheries Research, 109(1): 119– 130.
  23. Johnston, DJ, Smith, KA, Brown, JI, Travaille, KL, Crowe, F, Oliver, RK and Fisher, EA 2015, Western Australian Marine Stewardship Council Report Series No 3: West Coast Estuarine Managed Fishery (Area 2: Peel-Harvey) and Peel-Harvey Estuary Blue Swimmer Crab Recreational Fishery. Department of Fisheries, Western Australia. 284 pp.
  24. Kailola, PJ, Williams, MJ, Stewart, PC, Reichelt, RE, McNee, A and Grieve, C 1993, Australian fisheries resources, Bureau of Resources and Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra.
  25. Kumar, MS, Xiao, Y, Venema, S and Hooper, G 2003, Reproductive cycle of the blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus, off southern Australia, Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 83: 983–994.
  26. Lovett, R, O'Neill, MF, and Garland, A 2020 Stock assessment of Queensland east coast blue swimmer crab (Portunus armatus). Department of Agriculture and Fisheries. Brisbane, Queensland.
  27. Martell, S and Froese, R 2013, A simple method for estimating MSY from catch and resilience. Fish and Fisheries 14: 504-514.
  28. Murphy, JJ, Ochwada-Doyle, FA, West, LD, Stark, KE and Hughes, JM, 2020. The NSW Recreational Fisheries Monitoring Program - survey of recreational fishing, 2017/18. NSW DPI - Fisheries Final Report Series No. 158.
  29. PIRSA (2013) Management Plan for the South Australian commercial Marine Scalefish Fishery. The South Australian Fisheries Management Series, Paper number 59. 141pp
  30. PIRSA 2020 Management Plan for the South Australian Commercial Blue Crab Fishery. South Australian Fisheries Management Series Paper No. 75. Adelaide, Australia: Primary Industries and Regions South Australia (Fisheries and Aquaculture).
  31. QFish, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, www.qfish.gov.au
  32. Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries 2019 Mud and blue swimmer crab (C1) fishery scoping study. Technical report. Brisbane, Queensland.
  33. Ryan KL, Hall NG, Lai EK, Smallwood CB, Tate A, Taylor SM, Wise BS 2019. Statewide survey of boat-based recreational fishing in Western Australia 2017/18. Fisheries Research Report No. 297, Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia.
  34. Steer MA, Fowler AJ, Rogers PJ, Bailleul F, Earl J, Matthews D, Drew M and Tsolos A. (2020). Assessment of the South Australian Marine Scalefish Fishery in 2018 (PDF 8.7 MB). South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide. SARDI Publication No. F2017/000427-3. SARDI Research Report Series No. 1049.
  35. Stewart, J, Hegarty, A, Young, C, Fowler, AM and Craig, J 2015, Status of Fisheries Resources in NSW 2013-14, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Mosman: 391pp.
  36. Sumpton, W, Campbell, M, O’Neill, M, McLennan, M, Campbell A and Leigh, G 2015, Assessment of the blue swimmer crab (Portunus armatus) fishery in Queensland. Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Brisbane.
  37. Sumpton, W, Gaddes, S, McLennan, M, Campbell, M, Tonks, M, Good, N and Hagedoorn, W 2003, Fisheries biology and assessment of the blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) in Queensland, Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries Research and Development Corporation project 98/117.
  38. West, LD, Stark, KE, Murphy, JJ, Lyle, JM and Ochwada-Doyle, FA 2015, Survey of recreational fishing in New South Wales and the ACT, 2013/14. Fisheries Final Report Series No. 149. NSW Department of Primary Industries, Wollongong.

Downloadable reports

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